AccScience Publishing / GPD / Volume 2 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.36922/gpd.336
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Hematoma clearance by reactive microglia after intracerebral hemorrhage

Zhenhua Zhang1† Wei Xu1,2† Honghui Sheng1 Leo Huang3 Jiaxin Zhang4 Lanting Zhang5 Limin Wang6 Junmin Wang1 Xiuhua Ren1* Chao Jiang7* Jian Wang1*
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1 Department of Human Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China
2 School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China
3 Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada
4 Saint John Paul the Great Catholic High School, Dumfries, VA 20026, USA
5 High School Division of Zhengzhou Middle School, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China
6 Department of Neurology, Guangdong Provincial People’s Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Neuroscience Institute, Guangzhou, China
7 Department of Neurology, Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China
Submitted: 26 January 2023 | Accepted: 20 March 2023 | Published: 30 March 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subtype of stroke with high incidence rate and mortality. The pathogenesis of ICH involves primary brain injury and secondary brain injury. Unfortunately, no approved treatment options and therapies targeting them have shown satisfactory outcomes. Microglia are resident innate immune cells with phagocytic function in the central nervous system that rapidly respond to brain injury. Recent research has indicated that reactive microglia with enhanced phagocytosis reprogrammed by the interleukin 10 (IL-10) signaling pathway are critical for endogenous hematoma clearance. In this review, we first summarize the progress of microglial activation and function after ICH, focusing on specific microglial markers, pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules, as well as phenotypic and functional changes. The available evidence supports that microglia play a dual role after ICH. Second, we summarize the results of previous studies on hematoma clearance, focusing on reactive microglia in clearing hematoma through endogenous pathways reprogrammed by IL-10 or other molecules and necessitating the prospect of further research in this field. This review will help us better understand the role of reactive microglia in hematoma clearance and identify potential therapeutic targets to facilitate translational research in this direction.

Intracerebral hemorrhage
Interleukin 10

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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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Gene & Protein in Disease, Electronic ISSN: 2811-003X Published by AccScience Publishing