AccScience Publishing / IJB / Online First / DOI: 10.36922/ijb.1017
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Bottom-up and top-down VAT photopolymerization bioprinting for rapid fabrication of multi-material microtissues

Daniel Nieto1* Alberto Jorge de Mora2 Maria Kalogeropoulou1 Anant Bhusal3 Amir K. Miri4 Lorenzo Moroni1
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1 Complex Tissue Regeneration Department, MERLN Institute for Technology Inspired Regenerative Medicine, Universiteitssingel 40, 6229ER Maastricht, The Netherlands
2 University Hospital of Santaigo de Compostela, Galicia, Spain
3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rowan University, NJ 08028, USA
4 Department of Biomedical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
IJB 2024, 10(2), 1017
Submitted: 30 May 2023 | Accepted: 18 July 2023 | Published: 2 April 2024
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced light-based bioprinting)
© 2024 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

Over the years, three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has attracted attention for being a highly automated manufacturing system that allows for the precise design of living constructs where cells and biomaterials are displaced in predefined positions to recreate cell–matrix and cell–cell interactions similar to native tissues. Such technologies rarely offer multi-material features. In this paper, we present a new approach for bioprinting of multi-material tissue constructs using VAT photopolymerization at high resolution and fidelity. We developed a versatile dual-mode bioprinter that can easily be modulated to print in both top-down and bottom-up approaches. The custom-built platform was then used to fabricate microtissues and hydrogel microfluidic models. Combining bottom-up and top-down biofabrication tools can offer an optimal solution for hard–soft multi-material composites and for bioprinting tissue–tissue interface models. We demonstrated the possibility for hard–soft multi-material bioprinting by generating musculoskeletal tissue with integrated microvasculature. Combining multiple material bioprinting and microfluidic chips shows advantages in two aspects: precise regulation of microenvironment and accurate emulation of multi-tissue interfaces.

VAT photopolymerization
Digital light processing
Multi-material bio¬printing
Bottom-up and top-down bioprinting
Musculoskeletal tissue
EAPA_384/2016 Atlantic KET Med Project is co-financed by the Interreg Atlantic Area Programme through the European Regional Development Fund.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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International Journal of Bioprinting, Electronic ISSN: 2424-8002 Print ISSN: 2424-7723, Published by AccScience Publishing