AccScience Publishing / IJB / Online First / DOI: 10.36922/ijb.2460
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Techniques, mechanisms, and application of 3D-printed biodegradable metals for bone regeneration

Lingxiao Wang1,2† Yang Liu1† Zhipeng Fan1,3,4*
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1 Laboratory of Molecular Signaling and Stem Cells Therapy, Beijing Key Laboratory for Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction of Oral Tissues, School of Stomatology, Beijing Stomatological Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
2 Department of Dental Implant Center, School of Stomatology, Beijing Stomatological Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
3 Beijing Laboratory of Oral Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
4 Research Unit of Tooth Development and Regeneration, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
IJB 2024, 10(1), 2460 https://doi.org/10.36922/ijb.2460
Submitted: 17 December 2023 | Accepted: 19 January 2024 | Published: 12 February 2024
© 2024 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ )
Abstract

Repairing severe bone defects and restoring complete bone tissue morphology are major challenges in clinical practice. Biodegradable metals (BMs) are bioactive materials with active degradation properties. The gradual improvement of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology holds tremendous potential for development and has spurred on the growing utilization of 3D-printed BM materials in the clinical applications of bone regeneration. In this paper, we review the application of three BM (magnesium, iron, and zinc) materials for use in 3D-printed bone regeneration; define the principle of 3D-printed bone regeneration, including the method and selection of materials; and summarize the characteristics and uses of various printing technologies and the properties, advantages, and disadvantages of BMs. Compared to traditional nondegradable implants, 3D-printed degradable metal implants have the advantages of not leaving residue, avoiding stress shielding, promoting osteogenesis and vascularization, and exhibiting antimicrobial ability. In addition, we summarize the clinical applications of 3D-printed BMs. 3D-printed BMs can be used not only for fracture fixation and bone defect repair but also for osteoporotic fracture repair, cartilage repair, maxillofacial surgery, and other processes. In this article, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the current 3D printing degradable metallic materials and describe future development prospects.

Keywords
Three-dimensional printing
Biodegradable metals
Bone regeneration
Bone tissue engineering
Funding
This work was supported by the Young Scientist Program of Beijing Stomatological Hospital, Capital Medical University (No. YSP202208); the National Key Research and Development Program (No. 2022YFA1104401); the CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (No. 2019- I2M-5-031); and grants from the Innovation Research Team Project of Beijing Stomatological Hospital, Capital Medical University (No. CXTD202204).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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International Journal of Bioprinting, Electronic ISSN: 2424-8002 Print ISSN: 2424-7723, Published by AccScience Publishing