AccScience Publishing / IJB / Online First / DOI: 10.36922/ijb.2311
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The promising applications of 3D printing technology in neurotrauma

Wenbo He1,2† Chongxi Xu1,2† Wenbi Wu3† Yuchen Chen2 Jingxuan Hou2 Zhouhaoran Chen2 Jianguo Xu1 Maling Gou3* Yu Hu1*
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1 Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
2 West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
3 Department of Biotherapy, Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
Submitted: 24 November 2023 | Accepted: 15 January 2024 | Published: 12 February 2024
© 2024 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

Neurotrauma mainly includes brain injury, spinal cord injury, and peripheral nerve injury, which are characterized by high morbidity and disability rates, and involve costly treatments. Currently, various strategies have been applied for the treatment of neurotrauma, but their efficacy is unsatisfactory. New effective strategies are needed to be developed to promote recovery after neurotrauma. In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been used to manufacture customized and complex constructs in tissue engineering applications, exhibiting great potential in repairing nervous system injuries. In this review, we introduce the principles and advantages of 3D printing and 3D bioprinting technologies that have been applied to repair injured nervous system. In particular, we summarize the current strategies in the aspects of biomaterials, physical stimulation, bioactive substances, cell transplantation, and their combination that have been considered in fabricating 3D-printed devices for neurotrauma treatment. Additionally, the challenges and prospects of 3D printing for neurotrauma treatment were also presented.

Traumatic brain injury
Spinal cord injury
Peripheral nerve injury
Neural tissue regeneration
This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number: 82001320), Key R&D projects in Sichuan Province (2022YFS0319), and Post- Doctor Research Project, West China Hospital, Sichuan University (No. 2023HXBH081).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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International Journal of Bioprinting, Electronic ISSN: 2424-8002 Print ISSN: 2424-7723, Published by AccScience Publishing