AccScience Publishing / IJB / Volume 9 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.36922/ijb.1166
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Multiscale 3D bioprinting for the recapitulation of lung tissue

Pengbei Fan1,2 Fanli Jin1,2 Yanqin Qin1,2 Yuanyuan Wu1,2 Qingzhen Yang3,4* Han Liu1,2* Jiansheng Li1,2*
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1 Henan Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine for Respiratory Disease, Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Henan University of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, Henan 450046, P.R. China
2 Collaborative Innovation Center for Chinese Medicine and Respiratory Diseases co-constructed by Henan Province and Education Ministry of China, Zhengzhou, Henan 450046, P.R. China
3 The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049, P.R. China
4 Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049, P.R. China
Submitted: 27 June 2023 | Accepted: 8 August 2023 | Published: 4 September 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-enabled 3D bioprinting for various tissue engineering)
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

Lung tissue engineering (LTE) has gained significant attention as a highly promising and innovative strategy to tackle the formidable obstacles posed by lung-related diseases and the lack of compatible donor organs availability. In the realm of groundbreaking advancements in tissue engineering (TE), one particular technology that has emerged as a game-changer is three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting. It distinguishes itself by offering a potent and versatile approach to constructing intricate structures while opening up new horizons for TE and regenerative medicine (RM). This review focuses on the application of multiscale 3D bioprinting techniques in LTE and the reconstitution of lung tissue in vitro. We analyzed the key aspects such as bioink formulations and printing strategies utilized from macroscale 3D bioprinting to micro/nanoscale 3D bioprinting. Additionally, we evaluated the potential of multiscale bioprinting to replicate the complex architecture of the lung, ranging from macrostructures to micro/nanoscale features. We discussed the challenges and future directions in biofabrication approaches for LTE. Furthermore, we highlight the current progress and future perspectives in tissue reconstitution of lung in vitro, considering factors such as cell source, functionalization, and integration of physiological cues. Overall, multiscale 3D bioprinting offers exciting possibilities for the development of functional lung tissues, enabling disease modeling, new drug screening, and personalized regenerative therapies.



Multiscale 3D bioprinting
Lung tissue engineering
Tissue reconstitution in vitro
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (52175547 and U21A20337), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Special Funded Project (2022T150197), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2021M690938), Henan Province Key R&D, and Promotion Special (Scientific and Technical) Project (222102310183 and 222102310141).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interests.
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International Journal of Bioprinting, Electronic ISSN: 2424-8002 Print ISSN: 2424-7723, Published by AccScience Publishing