AccScience Publishing / MSAM / Volume 3 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.36922/msam.3281

Effects of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of 17-4PH/IN625 bimetallic parts fabricated through extrusion-based sintering-assisted additive manufacturing

Yulin Liu1 Dayue Jiang1 Fuda Ning1*
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1 Department of Systems Science and Industrial Engineering, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York, United States of America
Submitted: 27 March 2024 | Accepted: 29 April 2024 | Published: 24 May 2024
© 2024 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

The mechanical properties of bimetallic composites are significantly influenced by their interfacial morphologies. This study delves into the impact of various heat treatment conditions on the microstructure and mechanical attributes of steel/nickel bimetallic (17-4PH/IN625) components produced through extrusion-based sintering-assisted additive manufacturing (ES-AM). The bimetallic composites were annealed at 1150°C for 1, 4, and 8 h, followed by an aging treatment at 482°C for samples annealed for 8 h. After annealing, microstructural heterogeneities, including variations in grain size and elemental distribution within the transition zone close to the interface, were observed. It was found that in the diffusion transition zone between the two alloy layers, the diffusion of iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) elements increased with longer holding times, as corroborated by microhardness tests and quantified through theoretical parabolic diffusion law. The transition zone exhibited two distinct areas: an Fe-predominant zone and a Ni-predominant zone, with the latter containing oxides and molybdenum (Mo)- and niobium (Nb)-rich precipitates. No new phases emerged post-heat treatment; however, shifts in peak due to stress relaxation and the emergence of precipitates were identified through X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations. Microhardness within the transition zone increased following heat treatment, peaking at 186 HV1.0 after a 4-h annealing. The optimal heat treatment condition was identified as 1150°C for 4 h, which facilitated the development of uniform microstructures and improved bonding strength. This study demonstrates an enhanced interfacial bonding strength in 17-4PH and IN625 bimetallic parts manufactured through ES-AM, suggesting their wide-ranging potential applications in industry.

Bimetallic composites
Extrusion-based sintering-assisted additive manufacturing
Heat treatment
Interface bonding
Diffusion zone
This work was funded by the United States National Science Foundation through the award CMMI-2224309.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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Materials Science in Additive Manufacturing, Electronic ISSN: 2810-9635 Published by AccScience Publishing