AccScience Publishing / JCBP / Volume 1 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.36922/jcbp.1174
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REVIEW

Use of melatonin for the treatment of dementia: Addressing core symptoms and behavioral challenges

Sano Masahiro1 Kohji Fukunaga1,2 Ichiro Kawahata1*
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1 Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8578, Japan
2 BRI Pharma Inc., Sendai, 982-0804, Japan
Submitted: 28 June 2023 | Accepted: 17 August 2023 | Published: 13 September 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ )
Abstract

Dementia mainly includes Alzheimer’s disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and vascular dementia (VaD). In addition to cognitive impairment, patients often suffer from behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Melatonin administration has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy with potential benefits for BPSD. This review focuses on the therapeutic effects of melatonin on the core symptoms of dementia and BPSD. Specifically, the impact of melatonin on memory impairment, sleep disturbances, anxiety, depression, delusions, and hallucinations is reviewed. The melatonin’s role in amyloid-β, synuclein aggregation, reactive oxygen species, and dementia subtypes are discussed. We aim to provide an up-to-date review of the emerging application of melatonin; thus, dementia patient care and social welfare can be improved by the appropriate usage of this medication.

Keywords
Dementia
Melatonin
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase
Dopamine
Fatty acid-binding protein
Funding
Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, KAKENHI, and Takeda Science Foundation
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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