AccScience Publishing / IJB / Volume 9 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.36922/ijb.1089
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Bioprinting of cell-laden protein-based hydrogels: From cartilage to bone tissue engineering

Mehran Khajehmohammadi1,2 Negar Bakhtiary3 Niyousha Davari4 Soulmaz Sarkari5 Hamidreza Tolabi6,7 Dejian Li8 Behafarid Ghalandari9* Baoqing Yu10* Farnaz Ghorbani11,12,13*
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1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd 8174848351, Iran
2 Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Yazd Reproductive Sciences Institute, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd 8916877391, Iran
3 Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 14115114, Iran
4 Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran 143951561, Iran
5 Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany
6 New Technologies Research Center (NTRC), Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 158754413, Iran
7 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran 158754413, Iran
8 Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Pudong Hospital, Fudan University Pudong Medical Center, Shanghai, China
9 State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Institute for Personalized Medicine, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China
10 Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Pudong New Area People’s Hospital, Shanghai, China
11 Department of Translational Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS1 3NY, United Kingdom
12 Institute of Biomaterials, Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen- Nuremberg, Cauerstraße 6, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
13 Institute of Orthopaedic and Musculoskeletal Science, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, University College London, London, United Kingdom
Submitted: 16 June 2023 | Accepted: 3 August 2023 | Published: 7 September 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

The fabrication of cell-laden protein-based hydrogels (PBHs) for bioprinting necessitates careful consideration of numerous factors to ensure optimal structure and functionality. Bioprinting techniques, such as single-cell, multi-cell, and cell aggregate bioprinting, are employed to encapsulate cells within PBHs bioink, enabling the creation of scaffolds for cartilage and bone regeneration. During the fabrication process, it is imperative to account for biophysical and biochemical factors that influence cell behavior and protein structure within the PBHs. Precise control of crosslinking methods, hydrogel rheological properties, and printing parameters is also crucial to achieve desired scaffold properties without compromising cell viability and protein integrity. This review primarily focuses on the influence of biophysical factors, including composition, microstructure, biodegradation, and crosslinking, as well as biochemical factors, including chemical structure, growth factors, and signaling molecules, on protein structure and cell behavior. Additionally, key considerations for bioprinting PBHs and their impact on the successful regeneration of tissues are discussed. Furthermore, the review highlights current advancements, existing challenges, and promising prospects in the development of cell-laden PBHs for bioprinting applications and the regeneration of bone and cartilage.

Tissue engineering
This work was supported by Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (Fellowship to F.G.), the Outstanding Clinical Discipline Project of Shanghai Pudong (Grant No. PWYgy2021-08), the Pudong New Area Traditional Chinese Medicine Science and Technology Innovation project (PDZY-2020-0607), the Young Medical Talents Training Program of Pudong Health Committee of Shanghai (Grant No. PWRq 2021-08), the Health Industry Clinical Research Project of Shanghai Health Commission (Grant No. 20224Y0393), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81971753, 82170897).


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Conflict of interest
The authors certify that they have no affiliations with, or involvement in, any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
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International Journal of Bioprinting, Electronic ISSN: 2424-8002 Print ISSN: 2424-7723, Published by AccScience Publishing