AccScience Publishing / IJB / Volume 9 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.18063/ijb.725
Cite this article
Journal Browser
Volume | Year
News and Announcements
View All

3D printing and 3D-printed electronics: Applications and future trends in smart drug delivery devices

Wai Cheung Ma* Guo Liang Goh1 Balasankar Meera Priyadarshini1 Wai Yee Yeong1
Show Less
1 Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University 639798, Singapore
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Related to 3D printing technology and materials)
© Invalid date by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

Drug delivery devices which can control the release of drugs on demand allow for improved treatment to a patient. These smart drug delivery devices allow for the release of drugs to be turned on and off as needed, thereby increasing the control over the drug concentration within the patient. The addition of electronics to the smart drug delivery devices increases the functionality and applications of these devices. Through the use of 3D printing and 3D-printed electronics, the customizability and functions of such devices can also be greatly increased. With the development in such technologies, the applications of the devices will be improved. In this review paper, the application of 3D-printed electronics and 3D printing in smart drug delivery devices with electronics as well as the future trends of such applications are covered.

3D printing
Smart drug delivery device
Printed electronics

1. Wen H, Jung H, Li X, 2015, Drug delivery approaches in addressing clinical pharmacology-related issues: Opportunities and challenges. AAPS J, 17(6):1327–1340. 

2. Mehrotra N, Gupta M, Kovar A, et al., 2007, The role of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor therapy. Int J Impot Res, 19(3):253–264. 

3. McCoy CP, Brady C, Cowley JF, et al., 2010, Triggered drug delivery from biomaterials. Exp Opin Drug Deliv, 7(5): 605–616. 

4. Wang Y, Kohane DS, 2017, External triggering and triggered targeting strategies for drug delivery. Nat Rev Mater, 2(6):17020. 

5. Alvarez-Lorenzo C, Concheiro A, 2014, Smart drug delivery systems: From fundamentals to the clinic. Chem Commun, 50(58):7743–7765. 

6. Ghani M, Heiskanen A, Kajtez J, et al., 2021, On-demand reversible UV-triggered interpenetrating polymer network-based drug delivery system using the Spiropyran– Merocyanine hydrophobicity switch. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 13(3):3591–3604. 

7. Zhou C, Xie X, Yang H, et al., 2019, Novel class of ultrasound-triggerable drug delivery systems for the improved treatment of tumors. Mol Pharm, 16(7):2956–2965. 

8. Hoare T, Timko BP, Santamaria J, et al., 2011, Magnetically triggered nanocomposite membranes: A versatile platform for triggered drug release. Nano Letters, 11(3):1395–1400. 

9. Teodorescu F, Quéniat G, Foulon C, et al., 2017, Transdermal skin patch based on reduced graphene oxide: A new approach for photothermal triggered permeation of ondansetron across porcine skin. J Control Release, 245:137–146.
10. Bagherifard S, Tamayol A, Mostafalu P, et al., 2016, Dermal patch with integrated flexible heater for on demand drug delivery. Adv Healthc Mater, 5(1):175–184. 

11. Lee H, Choi TK, Lee YB, et al., 2016, A graphene-based electrochemical device with thermoresponsive microneedles for diabetes monitoring and therapy. Nat Nanotechnol, 11(6):566–572. 

12. Lawrence M, Séguin C, Price A, 2021, 3D printed polypyrrole scaffolds for pH-dependent drug delivery for bone regeneration. SPIE Smart Structures + Nondestructive Evaluation. Vol. 11590. SPIE.
13. Feng G, Tseng W, 2018, PZT and PNIPAM film-based flexible and stretchable electronics for knee health monitoring and enhanced drug delivery. IEEE Sens J, 18(23):9736–9743. 

14. Derakhshankhah H, Jahanban-Esfahlan R, Vandghanooni S, et al., 2021, A bio-inspired gelatin-based pH- and thermal-sensitive magnetic hydrogel for in vitro chemo/ hyperthermia treatment of breast cancer cells. J Appl Polym Sci, 138(24):50578. 

15. Tiryaki E, Başaran Elalmış Y, Karakuzu İkizler B, et al., 2020, Novel organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles as enzyme-triggered drug delivery systems: Dextran and dextran aldehyde coated silica aerogels. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol, 56:101517. 

16. Liu C, Wang Z, Wei X, et al., 2021, 3D printed hydrogel/PCL core/shell fiber scaffolds with NIR-triggered drug release for cancer therapy and wound healing. Acta Biomater, 131: 314–325. 

17. Yang Y, Zeng W, Huang P, et al., 2021, Smart materials for drug delivery and cancer therapy. VIEW, 2(2):20200042. 

18. SSoppimath KS, Aminabhavi TM, Dave AM, et al., 2002, Stimulus-responsive “smart” hydrogels as novel drug delivery systems. Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 28(8):957–974. 

19. Lodhi BA, Hussain MA, Ashraf MU, et al., 2020, Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds engender a smart material for intelligent drug delivery: On-off switching and real-time swelling, in vivo transit detection, and mechanistic studies. Ind Crops Prod, 155:112780. 

20. Yadav KS, Kapse-Mistry S, Peters GJ, et al., 2019, E-drug delivery: A futuristic approach. Drug Discov Today, 24(4):1023–1030. 

21. Appelboom G, Camacho E, Abraham ME, et al., 2014, Smart wearable body sensors for patient self-assessment and monitoring. Arch Public Health, 72(1):28. 

22. Xu G, Lu Y, Cheng C, et al., 2021, Battery-free and wireless smart wound dressing for wound infection monitoring and electrically controlled on-demand drug delivery. Adv Funct Mater, 31(26):2100852. 

23. Lee H, Song C, Hong YS, et al., 2017, Wearable/disposable sweat-based glucose monitoring device with multistage transdermal drug delivery module. Sci Adv, 3(3):e1601314. 

24. Timko BP, Dvir T, Kohane DS, 2010, Remotely triggerable drug delivery systems. Adv Mater, 22(44):4925–4943. 

25. Placone JK, Engler AJ, 2018, Recent advances in extrusion-based 3D printing for biomedical applications. Adv Healthc Mater, 7(8):1701161. 

26. Schouten M, Wolterink G, Dijkshoorn A, et al., 2021, A review of extrusion-based 3D printing for the fabrication of electro- and biomechanical sensors. IEEE Sens J, 21(11):12900–12912. 

27. Jiang Z, Diggle B, Tan ML, et al., 2020, Extrusion 3D printing of polymeric materials with advanced properties. Adv Sci, 7(17):2001379. 

28. Dumpa N, Butreddy A, Wang H, et al., 2021, 3D printing in personalized drug delivery: An overview of hot-melt extrusion-based fused deposition modeling. Int J Pharm, 600:120501. 

29. Gudapati H, Dey M, Ozbolat I, 2016, A comprehensive review on droplet-based bioprinting: Past, present and future. Biomaterials, 102:20–42. 

30. Wang Y, Xu Z, Wu D, et al., 2020, Current status and prospects of polymer powder 3D printing technologies. Materials (Basel), 13(10):2406. 

31. Abdolmaleki H, Kidmose P, Agarwala S, 2021, Droplet-based techniques for printing of functional inks for flexible physical sensors. Adv Mater, 33(20):2006792. 

32. Li W, Mille LS, Robledo JA, et al., 2020, Recent advances in formulating and processing biomaterial inks for vat polymerization-based 3D printing. Adv Healthc Mater, 9(15):2000156. 

33. Pagac M, Hajnys J, Ma Q-P, et al., 2021, A review of vat photopolymerization technology: Materials, applications, challenges, and future trends of 3D printing. Polymers, 13(4):598. 

34. Xu X, Awad A, Robles-Martinez P, et al., 2021, Vat photopolymerization 3D printing for advanced drug delivery and medical device applications. J Control Release, 329:743–757. 

35. Xing J-F, Zheng M-L, Duan X-M, 2015, Two-photon polymerization microfabrication of hydrogels: An advanced 3D printing technology for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Chem Soc Rev, 44(15):5031–5039. 

36. Piedra-Cascón W, Krishnamurthy VR, Att W, et al., 2021, 3D printing parameters, supporting structures, slicing, and post-processing procedures of vat-polymerization additive manufacturing technologies: A narrative review. J Dentist, 109:103630. 

37. Sadia M, Arafat B, Ahmed W, et al., 2018, Channelled tablets: An innovative approach to accelerating drug release from 3D printed tablets. J Control Release, 269:355–363. 

38. Kyobula M, Adedeji A, Alexander MR, et al., 2017, 3D inkjet printing of tablets exploiting bespoke complex geometries
for controlled and tuneable drug release. J Control Release, 261:207–215. 

39. Goyanes A, Robles MP, Buanz A, et al., 2015, Effect of geometry on drug release from 3D printed tablets. Int J Pharm, 494(2):657–663. 

40. Economidou SN, Uddin MJ, Marques MJ, et al., 2021, A novel 3D printed hollow microneedle microelectromechanical system for controlled, personalized transdermal drug delivery. Addit Manuf, 38:101815. 

41. Derakhshandeh H, Aghabaglou F, McCarthy A, et al., 2020, A wirelessly controlled smart bandage with 3D-printed miniaturized needle arrays. Adv Funct Mater, 30(13):1905544. 

42. Yeung C, Chen S, King B, et al., 2019, A 3D-printed microfluidic-enabled hollow microneedle architecture for transdermal drug delivery. Biomicrofluidics, 13(6):064125.

43. Dalvand K, Ghiasvand A, Gupta V, et al., 2021, Chemotaxis-based smart drug delivery of epirubicin using a 3D printed microfluidic chip. J Chromatogr B, 1162:122456. 

44. Goffredo R, Pecora A, Maiolo L, et al., 2016, A swallowable smart pill for local drug delivery. J Microelectromech Syst, 25(2):362–370. 

45. Jiang H, Kim A, Zhou J, et al., 2019, Real-time tracking of a 3D-printed smart capsule using on-board near-infrared led array. 2019 20th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems & Eurosensors XXXIII (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS XXXIII). 

46. Kong YL, Zou X, McCandler CA, et al., 2019, 3D-printed gastric resident electronics. Adv Mater Technol, 4(3):1800490. 

47. Forouzandeh F, Ahamed NN, Hsu M-C, et al., 2020, A 3D-printed modular microreservoir for drug delivery. Micromachines, 11(7):648. 

48. Forouzandeh F, Ahamed NN, Zhu X, et al., 2021, A wirelessly controlled scalable 3D-printed microsystem for drug delivery. Pharmaceuticals, 14(6):538. 

49. Mostafalu P, Amugothu S, Tamayol A, et al., 2015, Smart flexible wound dressing with wireless drug delivery. 2015 IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS). 

50. Ota H, Emaminejad S, Gao Y, et al., 2016, Application of 3D printing for smart objects with embedded electronic sensors and systems. Adv Mater Technol, 1(1):1600013. 

51. Ota H, Chao M, Gao Y, et al., 2017, 3D printed “earable” smart devices for real-time detection of core body temperature. ACS Sens, 2(7):990–997. 

52. Muth JT, Vogt DM, Truby RL, et al., 2014, Embedded 3D printing of strain sensors within highly stretchable elastomers. Adv Mater, 26(36):6307–6312. 

53. Akmal JS, Salmi M, Mäkitie A, et al., 2018, Implementation of industrial additive manufacturing: Intelligent implants and drug delivery systems. J Funct Biomater, 9(3):41. 

54. Punjiya M, Mostafalu P, Sonkusale S, 2017, Smart bandages for chronic wound monitoring and on-demand drug delivery. 2017 IEEE 60th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). IEEE. 

55. Yang Y, Li S, Xu H, et al., 2022, Fabrication of flexible microheater with tunable heating capabilities by direct laser writing and selective electrodeposition. J Manuf Process, 74:88–99. 

56. Karimi MA, Arsalan M, Shamim A, 2017, Live demonstration: Screen printed, microwave based level sensor for automated drug delivery. 2017 IEEE SENSORS. 

57. Jose M, Mylavarapu SK, Bikkarolla SK, et al., 2022, Printed pH sensors for textile-based wearables: A conceptual and experimental study on materials, deposition technology, and sensing principles. Adv Eng Mater, 24(5):2101087. 

58. Kim T, Yi Q, Hoang E, et al., 2021, A 3D printed wearable bioelectronic patch for multi-sensing and in situ sweat electrolyte monitoring. Adv Mater Technol, 6(4):2001021. 

59. Goh GL, Zhang H, Chong TH, et al., 2021, 3D printing of multilayered and multimaterial electronics: A review. Adv Electron Mater, 7(10):2100445. 

60. Cardoso RM, Silva PR, Lima AP, et al., 2020, 3D-printed graphene/polylactic acid electrode for bioanalysis: Biosensing of glucose and simultaneous determination of uric acid and nitrite in biological fluids. Sens Actuators B Chem, 307:127621. 

61. Wang L, Pumera M, 2021, Covalently modified enzymatic 3D-printed bioelectrode. Microchim Acta, 188(11):1–8. 

62. Sajid M, Gul JZ, Kim SW, et al., 2018, Development of 3D-printed embedded temperature sensor for both terrestrial and aquatic environmental monitoring robots. 3D Print Addit Manuf, 5(2):160–169. 

63. Kim H-G, Hajra S, Oh D, et al., 2021, Additive manufacturing of high-performance carbon-composites: An integrated multi-axis pressure and temperature monitoring sensor. Compos Part B Eng, 222:109079. 

64. Silva-Neto HA, Santhiago M, Duarte LC, et al., 2021, Fully 3D printing of carbon black-thermoplastic hybrid materials and fast activation for development of highly stable electrochemical sensors. Sens Actuators B Chem, 349:130721. 

65. Yin M, Xiao L, Liu Q, et al., 2019, 3D printed microheater sensor-integrated, drug-encapsulated microneedle patch system for pain management. Adv Healthc Mater, 8(23):1901170. 

66. Wang Z, Gao W, Zhang Q, et al., 2018, 3D-printed graphene/ polydimethylsiloxane composites for stretchable and strain-insensitive temperature sensors. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 11(1):1344–1352. 

67. Naficy S, Oveissi F, Patrick B, et al., 2018, Printed, flexible pH sensor hydrogels for wet environments. Adv Mater Technol, 3(11):1800137.

68. Liu Y, Li H, Feng Q, et al., 2022, A three-dimensional-printed recyclable, flexible, and wearable device for visualized UV, temperature, and sweat pH sensing. ACS Omega, 7(11):9834–9845. 

69. Fan J, Montemagno C, Gupta M, 2019, 3D printed high transconductance organic electrochemical transistors on flexible substrates. Org Electron, 73:122–129. 

70. Agarwala S, Lee JM, Yeong WY, et al., 2018, 3D printed bioelectronic platform with embedded electronics. MRS Adv, 3(50):3011–3017. 

71. Goh GL, Ma J, Chua KLF, et al., 2016, Inkjet-printed patch antenna emitter for wireless communication application. Virtual Phys Prototyping, 11(4):289–294. 

72. Du Z, Yu X, Han Y, 2018, Inkjet printing of viscoelastic polymer inks. Chin Chem Lett, 29(3):399–404. 

73. Iversen M, Monisha M, Agarwala S, 2022, Flexible, wearable and fully-printed smart patch for pH and hydration sensing in wounds. Int J Bioprint, 8(1):447. 

74. Nair NM, Pakkathillam JK, Kumar K, et al., 2020, Printable silver nanowire and PEDOT: PSS nanocomposite ink for flexible transparent conducting applications. ACS Appl Electron Mater, 2(4):1000–1010. 

75. Gao M, Li L, Song Y, 2017, Inkjet printing wearable electronic devices. J Mater Chem C, 5(12):2971–2993. 

76. Sinha AK, Goh GL, Yeong WY, et al., 2022, Ultra-low-cost, crosstalk-free, fast-responding, wide-sensing-range tactile fingertip sensor for smart gloves. Adv Mater Interfaces, 9(21):2200621. 

77. Goh GL, Agarwala S, Yeong WY, 2018, High resolution aerosol jet printing of conductive ink for stretchable electronics. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Progress in Additive Manufacturing (PRO-AM). Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. 

78. Agarwala S, Goh GL, Yeong WY. 2018, Aerosol jet printed pH sensor based on carbon nanotubes for flexible electronics. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Progress in Additive Manufacturing (PRO-AM). Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. 

79. Goh GL, Dikshit V, Koneru R, et al., 2022, Fabrication of design-optimized multifunctional safety cage with conformal circuits for drone using hybrid 3D printing technology. Int J Adv Manuf Technol, 120(3):2573–2586. 

80. Goh GL, Agarwala S, Yeong WY, 2019, Aerosol-jet-printed preferentially aligned carbon nanotube twin-lines for printed electronics. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 11(46):43719–43730. 

81. Goh GL, Zhang H, Goh GD, et al., 2022, Multi-objective optimization of intense pulsed light sintering process for aerosol jet printed thin film. MSAM, 1(2):10. 

82. Wang F-X, Lin J, Gu W-B, et al., 2013, Aerosol-jet printing of nanowire networks of zinc octaethylporphyrin and its application in flexible photodetectors. Chem Commun, 49(24):2433–2435. 

83. Zeng M, Kuang W, Khan I, et al., 2020, Colloidal nanosurfactants for 3D conformal printing of 2D van der Waals materials. Adv Mater, 32(39):2003081. 

84. Goh GL, Agarwala S, Tan YJ, et al., 2018, A low cost and flexible carbon nanotube pH sensor fabricated using aerosol jet technology for live cell applications. Sens Actuators B Chem, 260:227–235. 

85. Parate K, Pola CC, Rangnekar SV, et al., 2020, Aerosol-jet-printed graphene electrochemical histamine sensors for food safety monitoring. 2D Mater, 7(3):034002. 

86. Pola CC, Rangnekar SV, Sheets R, et al., 2022, Aerosol-jet-printed graphene electrochemical immunosensors for rapid and label-free detection of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva. 2D Mater, 9(3):035016. 

87. Di Novo NG, Cantù E, Tonello S, et al., 2019, Support-material-free microfluidics on an electrochemical sensors platform by aerosol jet printing. Sensors, 19(8):1842. 

88. Tonello S, Bianchetti A, Braga S, et al., 2020, Impedance-based monitoring of mesenchymal stromal cell three-dimensional proliferation using aerosol jet printed sensors: A tissue engineering application. Materials, 13(10):2231. 

89. Stassi S, Fantino E, Calmo R, et al., 2017, Polymeric 3D printed functional microcantilevers for biosensing applications. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 9(22):19193–19201. 

90. Rezapour Sarabi M, Nakhjavani SA, Tasoglu S, 2022, 3D-printed microneedles for point-of-care biosensing applications. Micromachines, 13(7):1099. 

91. Azim N, Kundu A, Royse M, et al., 2019, Fabrication and characterization of a 3D printed, microelectrodes platform with functionalized electrospun nano-scaffolds and spin coated 3D insulation towards multi-functional biosystems. J Microelectromech Syst, 28(4):606–618. 

92. Grimm T, 2003, Fused deposition modeling: A technology evaluation. Time-compression technologies, 11(2):1–6. 

93. Saadi MASR, Maguire A, Pottackal NT, et al., 2022, Direct ink writing: A 3D printing technology for diverse materials. Adv Mater, 34(28):2108855. 

94. Tan H, Tran T, Chua C, 2016, A review of printed passive electronic components through fully additive manufacturing methods. Virtual Phys Prototyping, 11(4):271–288. 

95. Huang J, Qin Q, Wang J, 2020, A review of stereolithography: Processes and systems. Processes, 8(9):1138. 

96. Goh GD, Agarwala S, Goh G, et al., 2017, Additive manufacturing in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs): Challenges and potential. Aerosp Sci Technol, 63: 140–151. 

97. Wan X, Luo L, Liu Y, et al., 2020, Direct ink writing based 4D printing of materials and their applications. Adv Sci, 7(16):2001000. 

98. Goh GL, Tay MF, Lee JM, et al., 2021, Potential of printed electrodes for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy 
(EIS): Toward membrane fouling detection. Adv Electron Mater, 7(10):2100043. 

99. Khan Y, Thielens A, Muin S, et al., 2020, A new frontier of printed electronics: Flexible hybrid electronics. Adv Mater, 32(15):1905279. 

100. Sarobol P, Cook A, Clem PG, et al., 2016, Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits. Annu Rev Mater Res, 46(1):41–62. 

101. Ma Y, Zhang Y, Cai S, et al., 2020, Flexible hybrid electronics for digital healthcare. Adv Mater, 32(15):1902062. 

102. Carlson A, Bowen AM, Huang Y, et al., 2012, Transfer printing techniques for materials assembly and micro/ nanodevice fabrication. Adv Mater, 24(39):5284–5318. 

103. Zheng C, Huang L, Zhang H, et al., 2015, Fabrication of ultrasensitive field-effect transistor DNA biosensors by a directional transfer technique based on CVD-grown graphene. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 7(31):16953–16959. 

104. Linghu C, Zhang S, Wang C, et al., 2018, Transfer printing techniques for flexible and stretchable inorganic electronics. npj Flex Electron, 2(1):26.
105. Jeroish ZE, Bhuvaneshwari KS, Samsuri F, et al., 2021, Microheater: Material, design, fabrication, temperature control, and applications—A role in COVID-19. Biomed Microdevices, 24(1):3. 

106. Cai Z, Zeng X, Duan J, 2011, Fabrication of platinum microheater on alumina substrate by micro-pen and laser sintering. Thin Solid Films, 519(11):3893–3896. 

107. Vasiliev AA, Nisan AV, Samotaev NN, 2017, Aerosol/ink jet printing technology for high-temperature MEMS sensors. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute Proceedings, 1(4):617. 

108. Honda W, Harada S, Arie T, et al., 2014, Wearable, human-interactive, health-monitoring, wireless devices fabricated by macroscale printing techniques. Adv Funct Mater, 24(22):3299–3304. 

109. Khan S, Ali S, Khan A, et al., 2021, Wearable printed temperature sensors: Short review on latest advances for biomedical applications. IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering. 

110. Lee J, Kim Y, Lee JH, 2020, A 3-D-printed, temperature sensor based on mechanically-induced long period fibre gratings. J Mod Optics, 67(5):469–474. 

111. Rahman MT, Cheng C-Y, Karagoz B, et al., 2019, High performance flexible temperature sensors via nanoparticle printing. ACS Appl Nanomater, 2(5):3280–3291. 

112. Honda W, Harada S, Arie T, et al., 2014, Printed wearable temperature sensor for health monitoring. SENSORS. IEEE. 

113. Kumar V, Kumar R, Singh R, et al., 2022, On 3D printed biomedical sensors for non-enzymatic glucose sensing applications. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part H J Eng Med, 236(8):1057–1069. 

114. Redondo E, Pumera M, 2021, Fully metallic copper 3D-printed electrodes via sintering for electrocatalytic biosensing. Appl Mater Today, 25:101253. 

115. Loo AH, Chua CK, Pumera M, 2017, DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology. Analyst, 142(2):279–283. 

116. Abdalla A, Patel BA, 2020, 3D-printed electrochemical sensors: A new horizon for measurement of biomolecules. Curr Opin Electrochem, 20:78–81. 

117. Hsu T-R, 2002, Miniaturization—A paradigm shift in advanced manufacturing and education. Proceedings of the IEEE/ASME international conference on advanced manufacturing technologies and education in the 21st Century. 1–19. 

118. Ikuta K, Hirowatari K, Ogata T, 1994, Three dimensional micro integrated fluid systems (MIFS) fabricated by stereo lithography. Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems an Investigation of Micro Structures, Sensors, Actuators, Machines and Robotic Systems. 

119. Udofia EN, 2019, Microextrusion 3D Printing of Optical Waveguides and Microheaters. 

120. Yin M, Xiao L, Liu Q, et al., 2019, 3D printed microheater sensor-integrated, drug-encapsulated microneedle patch system for pain management. Adv Healthc Mater, 8(23):1901170. 

121. Remaggi G, Zaccarelli A, Elviri L, 2022, 3D printing technologies in biosensors production: Recent developments. Chemosensors, 10(2):65. 

122. Kim T, Yi Q, Hoang E, et al., 2021, A 3D printed wearable bioelectronic patch for multi-sensing and in situ sweat electrolyte monitoring. Adv Mater Technol, 6(4):2001021. 

123. Liu M, Yang M, Wang M, et al., 2022, A flexible dual-analyte electrochemical biosensor for salivary glucose and lactate detection. Biosensors, 12(4):210. 

124. Samson OA, Margaret OI, Oluwashina PG, et al., 2020, Biomaterials for drug delivery: Sources, classification, synthesis, processing, and applications. Adv Funct Mater, IntechOpen, Ch. 10. 

125. Fenton OS, Olafson KN, Pillai PS, et al., 2018, Advances in biomaterials for drug delivery. Adv Mater, 30(29): 1705328. 

126. Picco CJ, Domínguez-Robles J, Utomo E, et al., 2022, 3D-printed implantable devices with biodegradable rate-controlling membrane for sustained delivery of hydrophobic drugs. Drug Delivery, 29(1):1038–1048. 

127. Berg S, Krause J, Björkbom A, et al., 2021, In vitro and in vivo evaluation of 3D printed capsules with pressure triggered release mechanism for oral peptide delivery. J Pharm Sci, 110(1):228–238.
128. Krause J, Bogdahn M, Schneider F, et al., 2019, Design and characterization of a novel 3D printed pressure-controlled drug delivery system. Eur J Pharm Sci, 140:105060.

129. Ruiz C, Kadimisetty K, Yin K, et al., 2020, Fabrication of hard–soft microfluidic devices using hybrid 3D printing. Micromachines, 11(6):567. 

130. Rupp H, Binder WH, 2020, 3D printing of core–shell capsule composites for post-reactive and damage sensing applications. Adv Mater Technol, 5(11):2000509. 

131. Konasch J, Riess A, Mau R, et al., 2019, A novel hybrid additive manufacturing process for drug delivery systems with locally incorporated drug depots. Pharmaceutics, 11(12):661. 

132. Lin R, Li Y, Mao X, et al., 2019, Hybrid 3D printing all-in-one heterogenous rigidity assemblies for soft electronics. Adv Mater Technol, 4(12):1900614. 

133. Valentine AD, Busbee TA, Boley JW, et al., 2017, Hybrid 3D printing of soft electronics. Adv Mater, 29(40):1703817. 

134. Sarabi MR, Bediz B, Falo LD, et al., 2021, 3D printing of microneedle arrays: Challenges towards clinical translation. J 3D Print Med, 5(2):65–70.
135. Joyee EB, Pan Y, 2020, Additive manufacturing of multi-material soft robot for on-demand drug delivery applications. J Manuf Process, 56:1178–1184.

Back to top
International Journal of Bioprinting, Electronic ISSN: 2424-8002 Print ISSN: 2424-7723, Published by AccScience Publishing