AccScience Publishing / IJB / Volume 9 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.18063/ijb.v9i2.661
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RESEARCH ARTICLE

3D printing of drug-eluting bioactive multifunctional coatings for orthopedic applications

Eben Adarkwa1 Abhijit Roy2,3 John Ohodnicki2 Boeun Lee2 Prashant N. Kumta2,4,5 Salil Desai1*
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1 Center of Excellence in Product Design and Advanced Manufacturing Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North Carolina
2 Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
3 Kennametal Inc., Latrobe, Pennsylvania, USA
4 Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
5 Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Submitted: 2 July 2022 | Accepted: 2 September 2022 | Published: 4 January 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Functional Biomaterials)
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ )
Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) printing is implemented for surface modification of titanium alloy substrates with multilayered biofunctional polymeric coatings. Poly(lactic-coglycolic) acid (PLGA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) polymers were embedded with amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and vancomycin (VA) therapeutic agents to promote osseointegration and antibacterial activity, respectively. PCL coatings revealed a uniform deposition pattern of the ACP-laden formulation and enhanced cell adhesion on the titanium alloy substrates as compared to the PLGA coatings. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed a nanocomposite structure of ACP particles showing strong binding with the polymers. Cell viability data showed comparable MC3T3 osteoblast proliferation on polymeric coatings as equivalent to positive controls. In vitro live/dead assessment indicated higher cell attachments for 10 layers (burst release of ACP) as compared to 20 layers (steady release) for PCL coatings. The PCL coatings loaded with the antibacterial drug VA displayed a tunable release kinetics profile based on the multilayered design and drug content of the coatings. Moreover, the concentration of active VA released from the coatings was above the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration, demonstrating its effectiveness against Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strain. This research provides a basis for developing antibacterial biocompatible coatings to promote osseointegration of orthopedic implants.

Keywords
Antibacterial
3D printing
Orthopedic implants
Osseointegration
Polymeric coatings
Therapeutic agents
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