AccScience Publishing / IJB / Volume 10 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.36922/ijb.1725
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2D/3D-printed PEDOT/PSS conductive hydrogel for biomedical sensors

Bin Huang1 Zengjie Zhao1 Yayu Zheng1 Kaidi Xu1 Dan Wang1 Qingyuan Yang1 Tingting Yang1 Xiaojie Yang2* Huangqin Chen1*
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1 School of Stomatology and Ophthalmology, Hubei University of Science and Technology, Xianning City, Hubei Province, China
2 School of Nuclear Technology and Chemistry & Biology, Hubei University of Science and Technology, Xianning City, Hubei Province, China
IJB 2024, 10(2), 1725
Submitted: 31 August 2023 | Accepted: 26 October 2023 | Published: 16 January 2024
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in 3D printing of hydrogels)
© 2024 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

The integration of conductive hydrogels and advanced three-dimensional (3D) printing is a trigger of the development of biomedical sensors for healthcare diagnostics and personalized treatment. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styr ene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is a versatile conductive hydrogel materials renowned for its exceptional conductivity and hydrophilicity, and 3D printing technology allows for precise and customized fabrication of electronic components and devices. In this review, we aim to explore the potential of 3D-printed PEDOT/PSS conductive hydrogel in the fabrication of biomedical sensors, with a focus on their distinct characteristics, application potential, and systematic classification. We also discuss the methods for fabricating PEDOT:PSS hydrogel electronic devices by employing 3D printing techniques, including extrusion-based 3D printing technology (fused deposition modeling, direct ink writing, and inkjet printing), powder-based 3D printing technology (selective laser sintering and selective laser melting), and photopolymerization-based 3D printing technology (stereolithography and digital light processing). The applications of 2D/3D-printed PEDOT:PSS hydrogels in biomedical sensors, such as strain sensors, pressure sensors, stretchable sensors, electrochemical sensors, temperature sensors, humidity sensors, and electrocardiogram sensor, are also summarized in this review. Finally, we provide insights into the development of 3D-printed PEDOT:PSS-based biomedical sensors and the innovative techniques for biomedical sensor integration.

3D printing
Conductive hydrogel
Biomedical sensor
This work was supported by the Xianning City Program of Science & Technology (No. 2022ZRKX051), Science Development Foundation of Hubei University of Science & Technology (No. BK202217, 2021F005, 2021ZX14), Special Fund for Medical Research of Hubei University of Science and Technology (2022YKY14), and Special Fund of School of Stomatology and Ophthalmology of Hubei University of Science and Technology (2020WG01).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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International Journal of Bioprinting, Electronic ISSN: 2424-8002 Print ISSN: 2424-7723, Published by AccScience Publishing