AccScience Publishing / GTM / Volume 1 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.36922/gtm.v1i1.34

Green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles induce apoptosis by suppressing PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in osteosarcoma MG63 cells

Satheeshkuma Subramaniyan1 Yoganathan Kamaraj1 Veenayohini Kumaresan1 Muthulakshmi Kannaiyan2 Ernest David3 Babujanarthanam Ranganathan3 Vijayanand Selvaraj3 Agilan Balupillai3
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1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Idhaya College for Women, Tiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Biotechnology, Thiruvalluvar University, Serkkadu, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
Global Translational Medicine 2022, 1(1), 34
Submitted: 3 March 2022 | Accepted: 15 April 2022 | Published: 23 May 2022
© 2022 by the Authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

This study aimed to assess the apoptosis-inducing mechanism of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) stabilized by Solanum xanthocarpum plant extract in human osteosarcoma MG63 cells. In the present study, we synthesized ZnO NPs from S. xanthocarpum extract and evaluated its anticancer mechanism on MG 63 cells. The synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by ultraviolet spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. The mean size of the synthesized ZnO NPs was 21.62 ± 7.45 nm and spherical in shape. The cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs on MG63 cells was determined by MTT assay. The Western blot analysis was carried out to examine the expression of apoptotic and autophagy-related proteins in MG63 cells. The findings of the study reveal that ZnO NPs treatment showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, increased lipid peroxidation, decreased antioxidant activity, increased reactive oxygen species generation, and increased DNA damage. In addition, ZnO NPs treatment increased the expression of apoptotic members such as p53, Bax, caspase-3, -8, and -9 while downregulating Bcl-2 expression in MG63 cells. Furthermore, ZnO NPs treatment suppressed the P13K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and increased the expression of LC3 and beclin-1 in MG63 cells. The present study demonstrated that ZnO NPs induced apoptosis and autophagy in MG63 cells through modifying apoptotic and autophagy-related proteins.

Solanum xanthocarpum
Zinc oxide nanoparticles

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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Global Translational Medicine, Electronic ISSN: 2811-0021 Published by AccScience Publishing