AccScience Publishing / AC / Volume 2 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.36922/ac.1234
Cite this article
74
Download
719
Views
Journal Browser
Volume | Year
Issue
Search
News and Announcements
View All
PERSPECTIVE ARTICLE

To hope all things: A relational response to racism in music education

Susan Quindag1*
Show Less
1 School of Education, Liberty University, Lynchburg, Virginia, USA
Submitted: 4 July 2023 | Accepted: 10 November 2023 | Published: 12 January 2024
© 2024 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution -Noncommercial 4.0 International License (CC-by the license) ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ )
Abstract

Throughout the United States, critical race theory (CRT) has been integrated and implemented in various school districts and higher education institutions to address and combat racism. As a variant theory of Marxism and critical theory, CRT, however, has many problems. One such problem is that it claims that racism is systemic in society and that society must be fundamentally changed or overthrown through activism. However, a systemic change alone will not combat racism because it is fundamentally a relational/spiritual problem and, therefore, should be addressed by a relational response. This paper explores the research question: What is a relational response to racism? To do so, I describe critical theory’s historical and theoretical roots and why it is inadequate to address racism. Then, I define the relational mindset as “the beliefs that orient us to understand the world through profound connectedness for growth beyond knowledge and action beyond technique” and expound on the words “connectedness,” “growth,” and “action.” To demonstrate a practical application of the relational mindset in music education, I present three indicators to align the objectives of a lesson plan – communication, empathy, and regard. I then discuss the application of the relational mindset to a music lesson on a spiritual sung by the Gullahs, “The Welcome Table.” I conclude the paper with questions to evaluate the veracity of other theories with the relational mindset and a final encouragement for educators when thinking about racism.

Keywords
Music
Education
Racism
Critical Theory
Relational Mindset
Spirituality
Funding
None.
References
  1. Anointed Straugter Sister-the Welcome Table. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ku9tw24hco&ab_ channel-theanointedstraughter/sister-topic [Last accessed on 2023 Oct 01].

 

  1. Fretheim TC. God and World in the Old Testament: A Relational Theology of Creation. Tennessee, US: Abingdon Press; 2005.

 

  1. Yannaras C. Relational Ontology. Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press; 2011.

 

  1. Allen SD. Why Social Justice is not Biblical Justice. United States: Credo House Publishing; 2020.

 

  1. Buber M. In: Kaufmann W, Trans. I and Thou. United States: Touchstone; 1970.

 

  1. Kramer KP, Gawlick M. Martin Buber’s I and Thou: Practicing Living Dialogue. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press; 2003.

 

  1. Evans T. Oneness Embraced: A Kingdom Race Theology for Reconciliation, Unity and Justice. United States: Moody Publishers; 2022.

 

  1. Swain CM, Schorr CJ. Black Eye for America: How Critical Race Theory is Burning Down the House. United States: Logos Books; 2021.

 

  1. Xu K. An Inconvenient Minority. New York City: Diversion Books; 2021.

 

  1. Woodson RL. Lessons from the Least of These. New York City: Bombardier Books; 2020.

 

  1. Busey CL, Duncan KE, Dowie-Chin T. Critical what what? A theoretical systematic review of 15 years of critical race theory research in social studies education, 2004-2019. Rev Educ Res. 2022;93(2):412–453. doi: 10.3102/00346543221105551

 

  1. Ledesma MC, Calderón D. Critical race theory in education: A review of past literature and a look to the future. Qual Inq. 2015;21(3):206–222. doi: 10.1177/1077800414557825

 

  1. Lindsey J. The Marxification of Education. Florida, US: New Discourses, LLC; 2022.

 

  1. Lynn M, Dixson AD. Handbook of Critical Race Theory in Education. 2nd ed. United Kingdom: Routledge; 2021.

 

  1. Christodoulidis E. Critical theory and the law: Reflections on origins, trajectories and conjunctures. In: Christodoulidis E, Dukas R, Goldoni M, (eds.), Research Handbook of Critical Legal Theory. United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2019. p. 2–26.

 

  1. Fuchs C. Cornel west and Marxist humanism. Crit Sociol. 2021;47(7-8): 1219–1243. doi: 10.1177/0896920520988314

 

  1. Marx K, Engels F. Manifesto of the Communist Party; 1848. Available from: https://www.marxists.org/admin/books/ manifesto/manifesto.pdf Last accessed on 2023 Jun 06].

 

  1. Hill D. Culturalist and materialist explanations of class and “race”: Critical race theory, equivalence/parallelist theory, and Marxist theory. Cult Logic. 2009;16:1–52 doi: 10.14288/clogic.v16i0.191552

 

  1. Kengor P. The Devil and Karl Marx. United States: Tan Books; 2020.

 

  1. Levin M. American Marxism. New York City: Threshold Editions; 2021.

 

  1. Möschel M. Critical race theory. In: Christodoulidis E, Dukas R, Goldoni M, (eds.), Research Handbook of Critical Legal Theory. United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2019. p. 6378.

 

  1. Lindsey J. Race Marxism. Orlando: New Discourses; 2022.

 

  1. MacDonald BJ. Traditional and critical theory today: Toward a critical political science. N Polit Sci. 2017;39(4):511–522. doi: 10.1080/07393148.2017.1378857

 

  1. Freire P. Pedagogy of the Oppressed: 50th-Anniversary Edition. London: Bloomsbury Academic; 2018.

 

  1. Yosso TJ. Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth. Race Ethn Educ. 2005;8(1):69–91. doi: 10.1080/1361332052000341006

 

  1. Xu K. School of Woke: How Critical Race Theory Infiltrated American Schools and Why We Must Reclaim Them. New York City: Center Street; 2023.

 

  1. Unger RB. The Critical Legal Studies Movement. United States: Harvard University Press; 1968.

 

  1. Delgado R, Stefanicic J, Harris A. Critical Race Theory: An Introduction. 3rd ed. New York: New York University Press; 2017.

 

  1. Ladson-Billings G. “Who you callin’ nappy-headed?” A critical race theory look at the construction of Black women. Race Ethn Educ. 2009;12(1):87–99.

 

  1. Kendi IX. How to be Antiracist. New York: One World; 2019.

 

  1. Regelski TA. Tractate on critical theory and praxis: Implications for professionalizing music education. Act Criticism Theory Music Educ. 2020;19(1):6–53. doi: 10.22176/act19.1.6

 

  1. Hess J. Critiquing the critical: The casualties and paradoxes of critical pedagogy in music education. Philos Music Educ Rev. 2017;25(2):171–191. doi: 10.2979/philmusieducrevi.25.2.05

 

  1. Hess J, 2019, Music Education for Social Change. United Kingdom: Routledge.

 

  1. McLaren P. Radical negativity: Music education for social justice. Act Criticism Theory Music Educ. 2011;10(1):131–147.

 

  1. Viramontes JD. Critical race theory offshoots. In: Lynn M, Dixson AD, (eds.), Handbook of Critical Race Theory in Education. United Kingdom: Routledge; 2022. p. 108–124

 

  1. Krebs ML. Can’t really teach: CRT bans impose upon teachers’ First Amendment pedagogical rights. Vanderbilt Law Rev. 2022;75(6):1925–1955.

 

  1. Cline T, Shenvi N. What if critical race theory were just a legal theory? A Christian critique. Liber Univ Law Rev. 2003;17(3):557–588

 

  1. Bissell T. Teaching in the upside down: What anti-critical race theory laws tell us about the First Amendment. Stanford Law Rev. 2023;75:205–259

 

  1. McWhorter JH. Woke Racism: How a New Religion has Betrayed Black America. United States: Portfolio/Penguin; 2021.

 

  1. Velasco JC. You are cancelled: Virtual collective consciousness and the emergence of cancel culture as ideological purging. Rupkatha J Interdiscip Stud Humanit. 2020;12(5):1–7. doi: 10.21659/rupkatha.v12n5.rioc1s21n2

 

  1. Chrisman RD. Racial reconciliation: A biblical framework. Liber Univ Law Rev. 2023;17(3):509–553.

 

  1. Scott T. America, a Redemption Story: Choosing Hope, Creating Unity. United States: Nelson Books; 2022.

 

  1. Sowell T. Social Justice Fallacies. New York City: Basic Books; 2023.

 

  1. Swain C. From rural poverty to Ivy League professor: Carol M. Swain’s life lessons. In: Woodson RL, (ed.), Red, White, and Black: Rescuing American History from Revisionists and Race Hustlers. New York City: Post Hill Press; 2021. p. 407–412.

 

  1. Nsenduluka B, Repent, Give Your Life to Christ”: Relatives of Charleston Church Massacre Victims Forgive Dylann Roof at Bond Hearing. Christian Post. Available from: https:// www.christianpost.com/news/repent-give-your-life-to-christ-relatives-of-charleston-church-massacre-victims-forgive-dylann-roof-at-bond-hearing [Last accessed on 2016 May 30].

 

  1. Smietana B. Eleven Portraits of Charleston Survivors’ Grief and Grace. Christianity Today. Available from: https://www. christianitytoday.com/ct/2016/june/cover-story-standing-with-charleston-after-emanuel-church [Last accessed on 2018 May 30].

 

  1. Baucham VT Jr. Fault Lines: The Social Justice Movement and Evangelicalism’s Looming Catastrophe. United States: Salem Books; 2021.

 

  1. Wilberforce W. A Letter on the Abolition of the Slave Trade; 1807. Available from: https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/ epub/63974/pg63974-images.html [Last accessed on 2021 Mar 30].

 

  1. Metaxas E. Amazing Grace. United States: Harper Collins; 2007.

 

  1. King ML. I Have a Dream. Available from: https://static. pbslearningmedia.org/media/media_files/full_text_i_ have_a_dream_pdf [Last accessed on 2023 Jun 07].

 

  1. Students for Fair Admissions, Inc., President and Fellows of Harvard College. Available from: https://www. supremecourt.gov/opinions/22pdf/20-1199_hgdj.pdf [Last accessed on 2023 July 30].

 

  1. Estenek SM. Redefining spirituality: A new discourse. Coll Stud J. 2006;40(2):270–281.

 

  1. Newberg A, D’Auili E, Rause V. Why God Won’t Away: Brain Science and the Biology of Belief. United States: Ballentine Books; 2001.

 

  1. Bogden D. The shiver-shimmer factor: Musical, spirituality, emotions, and education. Philos Music Educ Rev. 2010;18(2):111–129. doi: 10.2979/PME.2010.18.2.111

 

  1. Reimer B. A Philosophy of Music Education. 2nd ed. New Jersey, US: Prentice-Hall; 1989

 

  1. Goleman D. Social Intelligence. United States: Random House; 2006.

 

  1. Marx K, On the Jewish question. Available from: https:// www.marxist.org/archive/marx/works/1844/jewish-question [Last accessed on 2023 June 06].

 

  1. Ng E. No grand pronouncements here: Reflections on cancel culture and digital media participation. Telev New Media. 2020;26(6):621–627. doi: 10.1177/1527476420918828
Conflict of interest
The author has no conflicts of interest to declare.
Share
Back to top
Arts & Communication, Electronic ISSN: 2972-4090 Published by AccScience Publishing