AccScience Publishing / IJB / Volume 9 / Issue 5 / DOI: 10.18063/ijb.754

DLP-printed GelMA-PMAA scaffold for bone regeneration through endochondral ossification

Jianpeng Gao1,2† Hufei Wang3,4† Ming Li1† Zhongyang Liu1 Junyao Cheng1, 2 Xiao Liu1, 2 Jianheng Liu1* Xing Wang3, 4* Licheng Zhang1*
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1 Department of Orthopaedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 100039 Beijing, China
2 Medical School of Chinese PLA, 100039 Beijing, China
3 Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing, China
4 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing, China
Submitted: 1 February 2023 | Accepted: 31 March 2023 | Published: 16 May 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Functional Biomaterials)
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

Intramembranous ossification (IMO) and endochondral ossification (ECO) are two pathways of bone regeneration. The regeneration of most bone, such as limb bone, trunk bone, and skull base bone, mainly occurs in the form of endochondral ossification, which has also become one of the effective ways for bone tissue engineering. In this work, we prepared a well-structured and biocompatible methacrylated gelatin/polymethacrylic acid (GelMA/PMAA) hydrogel by digital light processing (DLP) printing technology, which could effectively chelate iron ions and continuously activate the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) signaling pathway to promote the process of endochondral ossification and angiogenesis. The incorporation of PMAA endowed the hydrogel with remarkable viscoelasticity and high efficacy in chelation of iron ions, giving rise to the activation of HIF-1α signaling pathway, improving chondrogenic differentiation in the early stage, and facilitating vascularization in the later stage and bone remodeling. Therefore, the findings have significant implications on DLP printing technology of endochondral osteogenesis induced by the iron-chelating property of biological scaffold, which will provide an effective way in the development of novel bone regeneration.

Endochondral ossification
Digital light processing
Bone tissue engineering

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International Journal of Bioprinting, Electronic ISSN: 2424-8002 Print ISSN: 2424-7723, Published by AccScience Publishing