AccScience Publishing / IJB / Volume 9 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.18063/ijb.v9i2.671
Cite this article
Journal Browser
Volume | Year
News and Announcements
View All

Preparation and characterization of 3D-printed antibacterial hydrogel with benzyl isothiocyanate

Yunxia Liang1† Bimal Chitrakar2† Zhenbin Liu1 Xujia Ming1 Dan Xu1 Haizhen Mo1 Chunyang , Shi1 Xiaolin Zhu1 Liangbin Hu1* Hongbo Li1
Show Less
1 School of Food Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an, 710021, China
2 College of Food Science and Technology, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, 071001, Hebei, China
Submitted: 9 September 2022 | Accepted: 8 November 2022 | Published: 17 January 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Related to 3D printing technology and materials)
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is an isothiocyanate of plant origin, especially the mustard family, which has good antibacterial properties. However, its applications are challenging due to its poor water solubility and chemical instability. We used food hydrocolloids, including xanthan gum, locust bean gum, konjac glucomannan, and carrageenan as three-dimensional (3D)-printing food ink base and successfully prepared 3D-printed BITC antibacterial hydrogel (BITC-XLKC-Gel). The characterization and fabrication procedure of BITC-XLKC-Gel was studied. The results show that BITC-XLKC-Gel hydrogel has better mechanical properties by lowfield nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR), mechanical properties, and rheometer analysis. The strain rate of BITC-XLKC-Gel hydrogel is 76.5%, which is better than that of human skin. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed that BITC-XLKC-Gel has uniform pore size and provides a good carrier environment for BITC carriers. In addition, BITC-XLKC-Gel has good 3D-printing performance, and 3D printing can be used for customizing patterns. Finally, inhibition zone analysis showed that the BITC-XLKC-Gel added with 0.6% BITC had strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and the BITC-XLKC-Gel added with 0.4% BITC had strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. Antibacterial wound dressing has always been considered essential in burn wound healing. In experiments that simulated burn infection, BITC-XLKC-Gel showed good antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus. BITC-XLKC-Gel is a good 3D-printing food ink attributed to strong plasticity, high safety profile, and good antibacterial performance and has great application prospects.

Antibacterial hydrogel
Benzyl isothiocyanate
3D printing
Rheological properties
Staphylococcus aureus
Escherichia coli

1. Wu X, Zhou QH, Xu K, 2009, Are isothiocyanates potential anti-cancer drugs? Acta Pharmacol Sin, 30: 501–512. 

2. Nakamura Y, Yoshimoto M, Murata Y, et al., 2007, Papaya seed represents a rich source of biologically active isothiocyanate. J Agric Food Chem, 55: 4407–4413. 

3. Li P, Zhao YM, Wang C, et al., 2021, Antibacterial activity and main action pathway of benzyl isothiocyanate extracted from papaya seeds. J Food Sci, 86: 169–176. 

4. Li H, Ming X, Xu D, et al., 2021, Transcriptome analysis and weighted gene co-expression network reveal multitarget-directed antibacterial mechanisms of benzylisothiocyanate against Staphylococcus aureus. J Agric Food Chem, 69: 11733–11741. 

5. Romeo L, Iori R, Rollin P, et al., 2018, Isothiocyanates: An overview of their antimicrobial activity against human infections. Molecules, 23: 624. 

6. Uppal S, Kaur K, Kumar R, et al., 2018, Chitosan nanoparticles as a biocompatible and efficient nanowagon for benzyl isothiocyanate. Int J Biol Macromol, 115: 18–28. 

7. Uppal S, Sharma P, Kumar R, et al., 2020, Effect of benzyl isothiocyanate encapsulated biocompatible nanoemulsion prepared via ultrasonication on microbial strains and breast cancer cell line MDA MB 231. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp, 596: 124732. 

8. Li W, Liu X, Yang Q, et al., 2015, Preparation and characterization of inclusion complex of benzyl isothiocyanate extracted from papaya seed with β-cyclodextrin. Food Chem, 184: 99–104. 

9. Ramirez-Blanco CE, Ramirez-Rivero CE, Diaz-Martinez LA, et al., 2017, Infection in burn patients in a referral center in Colombia. Burns, 43: 642–653. 

10. Keswani RK, Miglani OP, Sabherwai U, et al., 1982, Infection in burn patients. Burns, 8: 256–262. 

11. Bagdonas R, Tamelis A, Rimdeika R, 2003, Staphylococcus aureus infection in the surgery of burns. Medicina (Kaunas), 39: 1078–1081. 

12. Lowy FD, 1998, Staphylococcus aureus infections. N Engl J Med, 339: 520–532. 

13. Ladhani HA, Yowler CJ, Claridge JA, 2021, Burn wound colonization, infection, and sepsis. Surg Infect (Larchmt), 22: 44–48. 

14. Lima T, Passos MF, 2021, Skin wounds, the healing process, and hydrogel-based wound dressings: A short review. J Biomater Sci Polym Sci, 32: 1910–1925. 

15. Kopecki Z, 2021, Development of next-generation antimicrobial hydrogel dressing to combat burn wound infection. Biosci Rep, 41: BSR20203404.

16. Kamoun EA, Kenawy ES, Chen X, 2017, A review on polymeric hydrogel membranes for wound dressing applications: PVA-based hydrogel dressings. J Adv Res, 8: 217–233. 

17. Kim H, 2018, Wound dressing materials: The essentials. J Wound Manag Res, 14: 141–142. 

18. Zhang M, Zhao X, 2020, Alginate hydrogel dressings for advanced wound management. Int J Biol Macromol, 162: 1414–1428. 

19. Barak S, Mudgil D, 2014, Locust bean gum: Processing, properties and food applications--a review. Int J Biol Macromol, 66: 74–80. 

20. Chen Y, Zhang M, Bhandari B, 2021, 3D printing of steak-like foods based on textured soybean protein. Foods, 10: 2011. 

21. McKim JM, 2014, Food additive carrageenan: Part I: A critical review of carrageenan in vitro studies, potential pitfalls, and implications for human health and safety. Crit Rev Toxicol, 44: 211–243. 

22. Li JQ, Geng S, Zhen SY, et al., 2022, Fabrication and characterization of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by whey protein isolate/phloridzin/sodium alginate ternary complex. Food Hydrocolloids, 129: 107625. 

23. Ma W, Dong W, Zhao S, et al., 2022, An injectable adhesive antibacterial hydrogel wound dressing for infected skin wounds. Biomater Adv, 134: 112584. 

24. Yoon WB, Gunasekaran S, Park JW, 2006, Characterization of thermorheological behavior of Alaska Pollock and Pacific whiting surimi. J Food Sci, 69: 338–343. 

25. Zou Q, Tian X, Luo S, et al., 2021, Agarose composite hydrogel and PVA sacrificial materials for bioprinting large-scale, personalized face-like with nutrient networks. Carbohydr Polym, 269: 118222. 

26. Xiu H, Zhao H, Dai L, et al., 2022, Robust and adhesive lignin hybrid hydrogel as an ultrasensitive sensor. Int J Biol Macromol, 213: 226–233. 

27. Qi L, Wang Y, Chen B, et al., 2021, In vitro bacteriostatic effects of polymyxin B combined with propofol medium and long chain fat emulsion injection against Escherichia coli. Ann Palliat Med, 10: 4687-4687. 

28. Chen H, Zhou Y, Zhou X, et al., 2020, Dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate inhibits Candida albicans and oropharyngeal candidiasis in a pH-dependent manner. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 104:3585–3595. 

29. Liu J, Jiang J, Zong J, et al., 2021, Antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of fatty acids extract of dried Lucilia sericata larvae against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro. Nat Prod Res, 35: 1702–1705. 

30. Lin S, Pei L, Zhang W, et al., 2021, Chitosan-poloxamer-based thermosensitive hydrogels containing zinc gluconate/ recombinant human epidermal growth factor benefit for antibacterial and wound healing. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 130: 112450. 

31. Katoch A, Choudhury AR, 2020, Understanding the rheology of novel guar-gellan gum composite hydrogels. Mater Lett, 263: 127234. 

32. Huang M, Mao Y, Li H, et al., 2021, Kappa-carrageenan enhances the gelation and structural changes of egg yolk via electrostatic interactions with yolk protein. Food Chem, 360: 129972. 

33. Janarthanan G, Shin HS, Kim IG, et al., 2020, Self-crosslinking hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose hydrogel enhances multilayered 3D-printed construct shape integrity and mechanical stability for soft tissue engineering. Biofabrication, 12: 045026. 

34. Ma W, Zhou M, Dong W, et al., 2021, A bi-layered scaffold of a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofiber mat and an alginate-gelatin hydrogel for wound healing. J Mater Chem B, 9: 7492–7505. 

35. Annabi N, Rana D, Sani S, et al., 2017, Engineering a sprayable and elastic hydrogel adhesive with antimicrobial properties for wound healing. Biomaterials, 139, 229–243. 

36. Bertram HC, Engelsen SB, Busk, et al., 2004, Water properties during cooking of pork studied by low-field NMR relaxation: Effects of curing and the RN(-)-gene. Meat Sci, 66: 437–446. 

37. Pearce KL, Rosenvold K, Andersen HJ, et al., 2011, Water distribution and mobility in meat during the conversion of muscle to meat and ageing and the impacts on fresh meat quality attributes--a review. Meat Sci, 89: 111–124. 

38. Yang KC, Wu CC, Cheng YH, et al., 2008, Chitosan/gelatin hydrogel prolonged the function of insulinoma/agarose microspheres in vivo during xenogenic transplantation. Transplant Proc, 40: 3623–3626.
39. Chen F, Chen C, Zhao D, et al., 2020, On-line monitoring of the sol-gel transition temperature of thermosensitive chitosan/β-glycerophosphate hydrogels by low field NMR. Carbohydr Polym, 238: 116196. 

40. Kooistra-Smid AM, van Zanten E, Ott A, et al., 2008, Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus burn wound colonization by nasal mupirocin. Burns, 34: 835–839. 

41. Azzopardi EA, Azzopardi E, Camilleri L, et al., 2014, Gram negative wound infection in hospitalised adult burn patients--systematic review and metanalysis-. PloS One, 9: e95042. 

42. Venkatesan N, Perumal G, Doble M, 2015, Bacterial resistance in biofilm-associated bacteria. Future Microbiol, 10: 1743–1750. 

43. Tu C, Wang Y, Yi L, et al., 2019, Roles of signaling molecules in biofilm formation. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, 35: 558–566. 

44. Del Pozo JL, 2018, Biofilm-related disease. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 16: 51–65. 

45. Church D, Elsayed S, Reid O, et al., 2006, Burn wound infections. Clin Microbiol Rev, 19: 403–434. 

46. Lachiewicz AM, Hauck CG, Weber DJ, et al., 2017, Bacterial infections after burn injuries: Impact of multidrug resistance. Clin Infect Dis, 65: 2130–2136. 

47. Chen K, Lin S, Li P, et al., 2018, Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with burns in a regional burn center, Southeastern China. BMC Infect Dis, 18: 51. 

48. Reardon CM, Brown TP, Stephenson AJ, et al., 1998, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in burns patients--why all the fuss? Burns, 24: 393–397. 

49. Chanda A, 2018, Biomechanical modeling of human skin tissue surrogates. Biomimetics (Basel), 3: 18.

Back to top
International Journal of Bioprinting, Electronic ISSN: 2424-8002 Print ISSN: 2424-7723, Published by AccScience Publishing