AccScience Publishing / IJB / Volume 9 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.18063/ijb.v9i1.636
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FeS2-incorporated 3D PCL scaffold improves new bone formation and neovascularization in a rat calvarial defect model

Donggu Kang1† Yoon Bum Lee2† Gi Hoon Yang1 Eunjeong Choi1 Yoonju Nam1 Jeong-Seok Lee1 KyoungHo Lee2 Kil Soo Kim2,3 MyungGu Yeo4 Gil-Sang Yoon5 SangHyun An2* Hojun J eon1*
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1 Research Institute of Additive Manufacturing and Regenerative Medicine, Baobab Healthcare Inc., Ansan, Gyeonggi-Do, 15588, South Korea
2 Preclinical Research Center, Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation (K-MEDI Hub), Dong-gu, Daegu 41061, South Korea
3 College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, South Korea
4 Medical Device Development Center, Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation (K-MEDI Hub), Dong-gu, Daegu 41061, South Korea
5 Molds & Dies Technology R&D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Bucheonsi, Gyeonggi-Do, 14441, South Korea
Submitted: 29 July 2022 | Accepted: 2 September 2022 | Published: 4 November 2022
© 2022 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

Three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds composed of various biomaterials, including metals, ceramics, and synthetic polymers, have been widely used to regenerate bone defects. However, these materials possess clear downsides, which prevent bone regeneration. Therefore, composite scaffolds have been developed to compensate these disadvantages and achieve synergetic effects. In this study, a naturally occurring biomineral, FeS2, was incorporated in PCL scaffolds to enhance the mechanical properties, which would in turn influence the biological characteristics. The composite scaffolds consisting of different weight fractions of FeS2 were 3D printed and compared to pure PCL scaffold. The surface roughness (5.77-fold) and the compressive strength (3.38-fold) of the PCL scaffold was remarkably enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. The in vivo results showed that the group with PCL/FeS2 scaffold implanted had increased neovascularization and bone formation (2.9-fold). These results demonstrated that the FeS2 incorporated PCL scaffold might be an effective bioimplant for bone tissue regeneration.

3D printed
Mechanical properties
Bone formation

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International Journal of Bioprinting, Electronic ISSN: 2424-8002 Print ISSN: 2424-7723, Published by AccScience Publishing