AccScience Publishing / IJB / Volume 10 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.36922/ijb.0153
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Angiogenesis-promoting composite TPMS bone tissue engineering scaffold for mandibular defect regeneration

Hong Zhu1 Ziheng Lin1 Qifei Luan1 Yue Yang1 Meiyi Chen1 Xiaochuan Liu1 Jinsi Wang1 Kenny Man2,3 Jingying Zhang1*
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1 The First Dongguan Affiliated Hospital, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan 523710, China
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery & Special Dental Care University Medical Center Utrecht, PO 85500, Utrecht GA 3508, The Netherlands
3 Regenerative Medicine Center Utrecht, Utrecht CT 3584, The Netherlands
IJB 2024, 10(1), 0153
Submitted: 3 May 2023 | Accepted: 29 June 2023 | Published: 21 August 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

Mandibular defects severely impact the patient’s quality of life and are difficult problems to treat in the clinical setting. Due to the limitations of current gold-standard therapies, there is a tremendous need for tissue engineering approaches to meet this rising clinical demand. Injectable platelet-rich fibrin (I-PRF) containing a variety of pro-regenerative growth factors and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has been shown to be beneficial in stimulating angiogenesis. In this study, we developed a three-cycle minimally curved biomimetic bone tissue engineering scaffold made of β-tricalcium phosphate, modified with I-PRF and SDF-1. I-PRF was loaded at a concentration of 5% onto a triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) scaffold with a porosity of 70%. CCK-8 experiments and live-dead staining confirmed the scaffold’s good biocompatibility and its ability to promote cell proliferation. Wound healing assays showed that the TPMS scaffold loaded with I-PRF and SDF-1 (SIT) enhanced cell migration of MC3T3 cells. Moreover, angiogenesis experiments showed that the SIT scaffold promoted angiogenesis. Importantly, alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red staining confirmed that the bone scaffold accelerated MC3T3 cells’ osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. The SIT bone scaffold was then implanted into a rabbit mandible defect model. After a 2-month post-implantation period, micro- CT analysis revealed the growth of new bone tissue around the SIT construct, while histological analysis which included hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and masson’s trichrome staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, osteoprotegerin (OPG) staining demonstrated that the SIT scaffold substantially promoted the growth of a highly vascularized fibrous and bone tissue in the defect site. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the considerable potential of TPMS scaffolds loaded with I-PRF and SDF-1 in promoting the repair of mandible defects.

Bone tissue engineering scaffold
Triply periodic minimal surface
Bone defect
The study was supported by Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (2020B1515120001), the Special Funds for Key Areas of Ordinary Universities in Guangdong Province (2020ZDZX2013), Discipline Construction Project of Guangdong Medical University (4SG23012G and 4SG23016G), Guangdong Medical University Undergraduate Innovation Experiment Project (FYDS001, FYDS002, and FYDS003), and Guangdong University Student Innovation Project (S20202170520, S202210571094, and S202210571046).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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