AccScience Publishing / GHES / Volume 1 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.36922/ghes.1412
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An epidemiological study of social support, pain self-efficacy, and health locus of control among elderly patients with musculoskeletal disorders: Which is the role of sociodemographic and clinical variables?

Eleni Anyfantopoulou1 Paraskevi Theofilou1*
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1 School of Social Sciences, Hellenic Open University, Patras, Greece
Submitted: 29 July 2023 | Accepted: 18 August 2023 | Published: 21 September 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

The musculoskeletal system is a human body system that provides our body with the ability to move or stand. Thus, naturally, musculoskeletal disorders could hamper these natural functions. The purpose of this study is to investigate opinions of elderly people with musculoskeletal disorders regarding social support, pain self-efficacy, and health locus of control. A semi-structured questionnaire covering five sections was employed to survey the study participants. The first section was set to solicit demographic data; the second was used to survey about the state of health; the third about the perception regarding social support on a multidimensional scale; the fourth about the pain self-efficacy; and the fifth about the health locus of control. The mean age of the participants recruited in this study was 76.1 years and the majority were female, primary school graduates and retirees. Furthermore, most of them had been employed for moderate/mild manual labor, had average financial status, and was receiving medications for musculoskeletal problems. The results showed that family, social support, and financial status have positive effect on self-efficacy in pain. This study also showed that women took control of more their health better than men and the divorcees underperformed relative to the married individuals in taking control of their health. In summary, social support and internal health beliefs (locus of control) positively affect pain self-efficacy in elderly with musculoskeletal diseases.

Musculoskeletal disorders
Social support
Health locus of control

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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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Global Health Economics and Sustainability, Electronic ISSN: 2972-4570 Published by AccScience Publishing