AccScience Publishing / AN / Volume 1 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.36922/an.v1i1.9

Gastrointestinal symptoms of Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review from pathogenesis to management

Xiao-Yu Cheng1 Cheng-Jie Mao1 Ya-Li Wang2* Chun-Feng Liu1*
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1 Department of Neurology and Clinical Research Center of Neurological Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China
2 Department of Neurology, Affiliated Suzhou Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou, China
Advanced Neurology 2022, 1(1), 9
Submitted: 13 December 2021 | Accepted: 23 February 2022 | Published: 18 March 2022
© 2022 by the Authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

The identification of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is mainly dependent on motor symptoms, while the non-motor symptoms exist even decades ahead of the PD diagnosis. According to Braak’s hypothesis, the enteric plexus is the first affected site during the pathological development of PD, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms appear during the onset of the disease. Although GI symptoms decrease the life quality of patients with PD, there is often less focus on GI symptoms compared with motor symptoms. In this review, we summarize the pathophysiological basis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and treatment of GI symptoms in patients with PD. We also discuss the treatment and research dilemmas, as well as the research direction in the near future.

Parkinson’s disease
Non-motor symptoms
Gastrointestinal symptoms
Brain-gut axis
Jiangsu Provincial Key R&D Program
Discipline Construction Program of the Second Affiliated Hospital Soochow University
Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions
Seventh Batch of GuSu District Health Talent Training Project

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Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
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