AccScience Publishing / IJPS / Volume 7 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.36922/ijps.v7i2.342

Factors associated with knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the general Lebanese population toward the coronavirus disease 2019

Chadia Haddad1,2,3,4* Sandrella Bou Malhab1,5,6 Diana Malaeb1,6,7 Hala Sacre1 Danielle Saadeh1,8 Christine Bou Tayeh1 Pascale Salameh1,2,9,10
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1 Institut National de Santé Publique, d’Épidémiologie Clinique et de Toxicologie-Liban (INSPECT-LB), Beirut, Lebanon
2 School of Medicine, Lebanese American University, Lebanon
3 School of Health Sciences, Modern University for Business and Science, Beirut, Lebanon
4 Research Department, Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, Jal Eddib, Lebanon
5 Faculté de santé, Université Sainte Famille, Batroun, Lebanon
6 School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Beirut, Lebanon
7 College of Pharmacy, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates
8 Faculty of Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
9 Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
10 Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University of Nicosia Medical School, 2417, Nicosia, Cyprus
IJPS 2021, 7(2), 93–107;
Submitted: 9 September 2022 | Accepted: 6 November 2022 | Published: 6 December 2022
© 2022 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution -Noncommercial 4.0 International License (CC-by the license) ( )

People’s practice, including adherence to disease prevention strategies, is influenced by their knowledge and attitude, which differ by sex. This study aimed to validate a tool that measures knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward COVID-19 and explore the related factors, including socioeconomic features and sex disparities. An online cross-sectional study conducted between December 20, 2020, and January 5, 2021, enrolled 405 participants from the general Lebanese population using a snowball sampling technique. The COVID-19 KAP scales were constructed and validated. After confirming the validity of the generated scales, the results showed that a university education level (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.90) was related to a better knowledge of COVID-19. A higher household crowding index (aOR = 0.41), a higher anxiety (aOR = 0.88), and do not know if there was an indirect contact with a COVID-19 patient (aOR = 0.44) were significantly associated with low knowledge of COVID-19. Having a family member working in the medical field (aOR = 1.76) and higher COVID-19 fear scores (aOR = 1.04) were associated with a more acceptable attitude toward COVID-19. Furthermore, higher knowledge scores (aOR = 1.14), higher attitude scores (aOR = 1.41), higher COVID-19 fear scores (aOR = 1.10), and more time spent on COVID-19 information (aOR = 1.91) were associated with good practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, these associations differed by sex, except for the crowding index, which were inversely associated with knowledge in both sexes, while education level and indirect exposure to COVID-19 were significant only among females. Knowledge about COVID-19 did not affect attitudes, but a good attitude was related to better practice in both sexes. Moreover, higher fear and more time spent on COVID-19 information were significantly associated with better practice among females. Overall, this study validated tools to highlight the knowledge, attitude, and practice among the general population during the COVID-19 outbreak in Lebanon. Our findings suggest the need for health education programs tailored differentially according to sex, taking into account education, age, and socioeconomic status to raise awareness of COVID-19 and promote more acceptable attitudes and sustained safe practices among the general Lebanese population.

Coronavirus disease 2019
Fear of COVID-19
General population

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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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