AccScience Publishing / AN / Volume 3 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.36922/an.1961
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REVIEW

Neurophysiology of hypokinetic movement’s disorders: New insights in daily clinical practice

Giorgia Sciacca1*
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1 Department of Medical, Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies G. F. Ingrassia, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Advanced Neurology 2024, 3(1), 1961 https://doi.org/10.36922/an.1961
Submitted: 2 October 2023 | Accepted: 24 January 2024 | Published: 15 March 2024
© 2024 by the Author (s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ )
Abstract

Hypokinetic movement disorders encompass a group of clinically similar diseases that present challenges in discrimination during neurological examinations. Characterizing a specific hypokinetic disorder is necessary for the diagnosis and treatment in daily clinical practice. Neurophysiological tools, such as electromyography (EMG) combined with accelerometry, motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), electroencephalographic recording (EEG), Bereitschaftspotential (BP), auditory-evoked cognitive potential (P300), blink reflex (BR), and R2 blink reflex recovery cycle (R2BRRC), are useful in the differential diagnosis of movement disorders due to the common clinical features. However, neurophysiological assessments of movement disorders, especially hypokinetic diseases, are currently underutilized in clinical practice as compared to a few decades ago. This review aims to summarize practical insights gleaned from reported studies over the past 5 years (i.e., 2019 – 2023) regarding neurophysiological assessments of hypokinetic movement disorders, emphasizing the importance of their routine application. In particular, the methodology of the electrophysiologic evaluations pertaining to hypokinetic movement disorders is assessed. Moreover, a practical approach for the differential diagnosis of similar movement disorder syndromes based on specific neurophysiological features is proposed. Collectively, this review of the most recent neurophysiological implications in hypokinetic movement disorders highlights the practicality of these methods. Despite the advancement of other diagnostic techniques (e.g., neuroradiological methods), neurophysiological assessments may be a promising tool for clinical diagnoses, due to their high accuracy and ability to categorize and manage movement disorders (e.g., hypokinetic movement disorders) in daily clinical practice.

Keywords
Neurophysiology
Movement disorders
Parkinson’s disease
Multiple system atrophy
Progressive supranuclear palsy
Corticobasal syndrome
Funding
None.
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Conflict of interest
The author declares that she has no competing interests.
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Advanced Neurology, Electronic ISSN: 2810-9619 Published by AccScience Publishing