AccScience Publishing / AN / Volume 2 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.36922/an.314
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REVIEW

Seizures and chronic kidney disease: An in-depth review

Henry H.L. Wu1* Claire C.Y. Wang2 Suresh K. Chhetri2 Arvind Ponnusamy3,4 Paul Warwicker3
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1 Department of Renal Research, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital and The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
2 Department of Neurology, Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston, United Kingdom
3 Department of Renal Medicine, Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston, United Kingdom
4 Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Advanced Neurology 2023, 2(2), 314 https://doi.org/10.36922/an.314
Submitted: 27 December 2022 | Accepted: 3 April 2023 | Published: 12 April 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ )
Abstract

Seizures are not uncommon in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), with an approximate incidence of roughly 10%. There are two primary groups: Patients who develop acute provoked seizures in the setting of CKD and patients with pre-existing epilepsy who then develop CKD. The recognition of potential etiology and management of seizures in this patient population may be challenging for clinicians, particularly non-neurologists. Standard antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment is indicated for those with pre-existing epilepsy. The prescription of AED in CKD population requires careful consideration, due to potentially altered pharmacokinetics. Clinicians frequently encounter challenges in the selection, loading, titration, and maintenance of AEDs. There are few internationally recognized consensus recommendations for AED prescription in CKD and dialysis. Non-AED management aims at addressing factors that may have provoked the seizure. In this article, we provide an in-depth review of the potential etiologies and pathophysiological pathways of provoked seizures in CKD. We discuss strategies, including non-AED treatment options, which aim to prevent, and/or manage provoked seizures in the setting of CKD. We discuss the AEDs used in contemporary clinical practice and how their metabolism is affected by CKD, concurrent AED prescriptions, and dialysis.

Keywords
Seizures
Chronic kidney disease
Pathophysiology
Etiology
Management
Antiepileptic drugs
Funding
None.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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