AccScience Publishing / AN / Volume 2 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.36922/an.0387
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

Effects of losartan and enalapril on lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, spontaneous convulsive seizures, and cardiac changes in rats

Jatinder Katyal1* Dinesh Joshi1 Yogendra Kumar Gupta2
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1 Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad, Haryana, India
Advanced Neurology 2023, 2(2), 0387 https://doi.org/10.36922/an.0387
Submitted: 2 April 2023 | Accepted: 1 June 2023 | Published: 19 June 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ )
Abstract

Modulating the brain renin-angiotensin system presents an innovative pathway for exploring newer treatment approaches in epilepsy. The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of losartan (LOS) and enalapril (ENP), which are angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, respectively, on the incidence, initiation, and duration of status epilepticus (SE), spontaneous convulsive seizures (SCS), survival, and cardiac alterations in rats subjected to lithium-pilocarpine (LiP)-induced SE. Lithium (127 mg/kg, i.p.) pretreated male Wistar rats were administered pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) after 24 h to induce SE, which was terminated after 90 min of onset. Daily 10-h video monitoring was carried out for examining onset, frequency, duration of SCS, and mortality till 18 days. The administration of LOS (10 mg/kg, i.p.), ENP (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and atenolol (AT; 50 mg/kg, p.o.) was started before lithium in pre-SE protocol and for post-SE protocol these drugs were administered 1 h after terminating SE and continued for 7 days’ post-SE. Cardiac pathology, echocardiography, heart weight/body weight ratio, and histopathology were evaluated. None of the drugs used (LOS/ENP/AT) offered protection against SE. Administration before SE decreased and post-SE administration increased the latency of SCS, and the overall duration of seizures remained short in both cases as compared to untreated rats. The heart weight/body weight ratio decreased in rats that did not survive. No echocardiographic changes were observed in any of the groups. Untreated SE rats showed myocyte ischemic changes, which were not present in any treated rats. In conclusion, LOS may reduce cardiac complications in SE rats. Hence, further evaluation of LOS as an add-on in epilepsy treatment should be performed.

Keywords
Status epilepticus
Lithium-pilocarpine
Losartan
Enalapril
Atenolol
Spontaneous convulsive seizures
Cardiac changes
Funding
Research grant from the Department of Science and Technology, Science and Engineering Research Board, New Delhi, India
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Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest.
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Advanced Neurology, Electronic ISSN: 2810-9619 Published by AccScience Publishing