AccScience Publishing / AN / Volume 2 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.36922/an.v2i1.274
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An update on axon initial segment structure and function

Zhiya Chen1,2 Takahiko Mochizuki1 Yan Zhang1*
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1 State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
2 Yiwu Boya Rehabilitation Hospital, Yiwu City, Zhejiang Province, 322000, China
Advanced Neurology 2023, 2(1), 274
Submitted: 24 November 2022 | Accepted: 10 January 2023 | Published: 1 February 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). Licensee AccScience Publishing, Singapore. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized subcellular region located at the proximal end of the axon and serves as the action potential initiation site due to the high density of ion channels. The AIS plays a critical role in maintaining neuronal polarity by regulating the trafficking and distribution of proteins that function in the dendritic or axonal compartment of the neuron. Due to the adaptive nature of AIS location and length, the excitability of neurons can be altered in response to activity. In this review, we briefly introduce the structure and function of AIS as well as discuss the recent progress in our understanding of AIS ion channel distribution and plasticity in different types of neurons. These would contribute to a better understanding of the AIS and give us a new perspective on AIS-related diseases.

Axon initial segment
Ankyrin G
Ion channels
National Science and Technology Innovation 2030-Major Program of “Brain Science and Brain-Like Research”
National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) general research grants
Qidong-PKU SLS Innovation Fund

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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest.
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Advanced Neurology, Electronic ISSN: 2810-9619 Print ISSN: TBA, Published by AccScience Publishing