AccScience Publishing / IJPS / Volume 7 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.36922/Ijps.V7i2.389
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Gender gap in life expectancy at birth and the role of socioeconomic indicators in South and East Europe, 1991 – 2020: Evidence from a dynamic panel model

Goran Miladinov*
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1 Independent Researcher, Macedonia
IJPS 2021, 7(2), 14–31;
Submitted: 8 October 2022 | Accepted: 30 November 2022 | Published: 27 December 2022
© 2022 by the Author(s). Licensee AccScience Publishing, Singapore, Singapore. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution -Noncommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0) ( )

The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of socioeconomic development, economic, employment, and demographic factors on gender gap in life expectancy at birth (LEAB) in 24 South and East European countries. Aggregated yearly time series mainly from the UN and World Bank database for the period 1991 – 2020 were used. The generalized method of moments/dynamic panel data (GMM/DPD) model, a dynamic panel model, was used to explore the role of socioeconomic development, economic, employment, and demographic factors on sex differences in LEAB. The study shows that in these countries, a narrowed gender gap in LEAB is associated with a higher percentage of urban population in total population. There was found a significant impact of GDP per capita with a 2-year lag and Gini index with a 2-year lag as well as to LEAB on the gender gap in LEAB. There was not found a significant relationship between employment and education variables on gender gap in LEAB. However, the findings are important for policy discussions in terms of population health, labor policy, etc. The results are supported by the number of studies which show the relationship between socioeconomic development, economic, and demographic indicators and employment issues with gender gap in LEAB.

Gender gap
Life expectancy at birth
Generalized method of moments/dynamic panel data
South-East Europe
Panel data

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Conflict of interest
The author has no conflicts of interest to declare.
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