AccScience Publishing / IJPS / Volume 10 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.36922/ijps.0871
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LGBTQI+ asylum seekers and refugees: Recognition and public policies for protection

Henrique Zanin1* Antonio Rodrigues de Freitas Junior1
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1 Department of Human Rights, University of Sao Paulo School of Law, Sao Paulo, Brazil
IJPS 2024, 10(2), 103–114;
Submitted: 27 April 2023 | Accepted: 10 October 2023 | Published: 8 November 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution -Noncommercial 4.0 International License (CC-by the license) ( )

The LGBTQI+ and refugee agendas are interconnected, and there are frequent instances where LGBTQI+ asylum seekers and refugees experience mistreatment and rights violations during the asylum process. Since the first LGBTQI+ refugee requests took place in the 1990s, the topic has not yet been satisfactorily debated. Although states have been creating norms and programs targeting this population, some of these initiatives do not seem to reach local realities, and persistent gaps hinder the ability of LGBTQI+ asylum seekers and refugees to fully enjoy their rights, especially when specific subgroups are isolated and analyzed. Shedding light on the migratory policies established in Europe and acknowledging that some specific migrant populations have received modest academic attention; thus far, this work seeks to investigate the main issues discussed thus far by the literature on the specific hardship, violence, and intersectional discrimination suffered by LGBTQI+ asylum seekers and refugees during the asylum application and procedure. It also aims to disseminate the role public policies play in protecting and encouraging social inclusion and rights, not only for this portion of the population as a unified group but also for this acronym that encompasses a relatively diverse population in need of innovative policies for comprehensive inclusion.

LGBTQI+ asylum
Asylum seekers
Public policies
Systematic literature review

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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing interests.
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