AccScience Publishing / IJPS / Volume 10 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.36922/ijps.376
Cite this article
83
Download
1050
Views
Journal Browser
Volume | Year
Issue
Search
News and Announcements
View All
REVIEW

Gender symmetry: A systematic review of men’s experiences of intimate partner violence during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown

Dorothy N. Ononokpono1 Endurance Uzobo2*
Show Less
1 Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
2 Department of Sociology, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
IJPS 2024, 10(1), 34–44; https://doi.org/10.36922/ijps.376
Submitted: 30 September 2022 | Accepted: 1 December 2023 | Published: 28 December 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution -Noncommercial 4.0 International License (CC-by the license) ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ )
Abstract

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health concern. However, men’s experiences of IPV have been largely neglected in previous studies. This systematic review aimed to examine men’s experiences of IPV during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. Six online bibliographic databases were used to identify relevant published peer-reviewed journal articles and gray literature. A total of 19 journal articles and gray literature that examined the prevalence, types, and consequences of violence experienced by men during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown were extracted for review. This systematic review is anchored on the gender symmetry theory developed by Straus and Gelles. Expectedly, females were the major victims of IPV cases, but a significant number of men around the world also experienced IPV during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. This finding suggests that evidence-based approaches that also recognize men as victims of IPV should be taken into account for minimizing such cases.

Keywords
Gender symmetry
Intimate partner violence
COVID-19
Pandemic
Lockdown
Funding
None.
References

Ahmed, S., Changole, J., & Wangamati, C.K. (2021). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on intimate partner violence in Sudan, Malawi and Kenya. Reproductive Health, 18(1):222. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-021-01272-y

 

Allen, M. (2013). Social Work and Intimate Partner Violence. Milton Park: Routledge.

 

Anglin, D., & Homeier, D.C. (2014). Intimate partner violence. In: Marx, J., Walls, R., & Hockberger, R. (eds.). Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed., Vol. 1. Netherlands: Elsevier.

 

Bair-Merritt, M.H., Crowne, S.S., Thompson, D.A., Sibinga, E., Trent, M., & Campbell, J. (2010). Why do women use intimate partner violence? A systematic review of women’s motivations. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 11(4):178-189. https://doi.org/10.1177/152483801037900

 

BBC. (2020). Male Domestic Abuse Victims ‘Sleeping in Cars and Tents. Available from: https://www.bbc.com/news/ uk-england-54237409 [Last accessed on 2021 May 03].

 

Brooks, M. (2020). Male Victims of Domestic Abuse and Partner Abuse: 50 Key Facts. Mankind Initiative. Available from: https://www.mankind.org.uk/wp-content/ uploads/2020/03/50-key-facts-about-male-victims-of-domestic-abuse-and-partner-abuse-march-2020-final.pdf [Last accessed on 2020 Sep 26].

 

Caldwell, J.E. (2012). Gender differences in intimate partner violence outcomes. Psychology of Violence, 2(1):42-45. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026296

 

Cercone, J.J., Beach, S.R.H., & Arias, I. (2005). Gender symmetry in dating intimate partner violence: Does similar behavior imply similar constructs? Violence and Victims, 20(2):207-218. https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.2005.20.2.207

 

Chan, K.L. (2011). Gender differences in self-reports of intimate partner violence: A review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16(2):167-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2011.02.008

 

Costa, D., Soares, J., Lindert, J., Hatzidimitriadou, E., Sundin, Ö., Toth, O., et al. (2015). Intimate partner violence: A study in men and women from six European countries. International Journal of Public Health, 60:467-478. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-015-0663-1

 

Darteh, E.K.M., Dickson, K.S., & Doku, D.T. (2019). Women’s reproductive health decision-making: A multi-country analysis of demographic and health surveys in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS One, 14(1):e0209985. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209985

 

Dass, J.D., Stein, D.J., William, D.R., & Seedat, S. (2011). Gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence among South African adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(14):2764-2789. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260510390960

 

Dienye, P.O., & Gbeneol, P.K. (2009). Domestic violence against men in primary care in Nigeria. American Journal of Men’s Health, 3:333-339. https://doi.org/10.1177/155798830832546

 

Dobash, R.P., Dobash, R.E., Wilson, M., & Daly, M. (1992). The myth of sexual symmetry in marital violence. Social Problems, 39(1):71-91. https://doi.org/10.2307/3096914

 

Esquivel-Santovena, E.E., Lambert, T., & Hamel, J. (2013). Partner abuse worldwide. Partner Abuse, 4(1):6-75. https://doi.org/10.1891/1946-6560.4.1.e14

 

Evans, M.L., Lindauer, M., & Farrell, M.E. (2020). A pandemic within a pandemic-intimate partner violence during Covid-19. The New England Journal of Medicine, 383:2302-2304.

 

Flood, M. (2004). Domestic violence. In: Kimmel, M., & Aronson, A. (eds.). Men and Masculinities: A Social, Cultural, and Historical Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

 

Folorunsho-Francis, A. (2020). Men Suffering Domestic Violence in Silence at Risk of Depression-experts. Available from: https://healthwise.punchng.com/men-suffering-domestic-violence-in-silence-at-risk-of-depression-experts

 

Gama, A., Pedro, A.R., De Carvalho, M.J.L., Guerreiro, A.E, Duarte, V., Quintas, J, et al. (2021). Domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic in Portugal. Portuguese Journal of Public Health, 38(1):32-40. https://doi.org/10.1159/000514341

 

Gelles, R.J., & Straus, M.A. (1988). How violent are American families? In: Gelles, R.J., Straus, M.A. (eds.). Intimate Violence: The Causes and Consequences of Abuse in the American Family. United States: Simon and Schuster.

 

Glesson, H. (2020). Men with Nowhere to Turn. Available from: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-09-01/male-victims-of-domestic-violence-shame-stigma-support/12495738?nw=0 [Last accessed on 2021 Mar 03].

 

Jewkes, R., Fulu, E., Tabassam, N.R., Chirwa, E., Dunkle, K., Haardörfer, R., et al. (2017). Women’s and men’s reports of past-year prevalence of intimate partner violence and rape and women’s risk factors for intimate partner violence: A multi-country cross-sectional study in Asia and the Pacific. PLoS Med, 14(9):e1002381. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002381

 

Khalifeh, H., Moran, P., Borschmann, R., Dean, K., Hart, C., Hogg, J., et al. (2015). Domestic and sexual violence against patients with severe mental illness. Psychological Medicine, 45(4):875-886. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291714001962

 

Kigaya, C.W. (2021). Domestic Abuse against Men in Kenya. In: Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Public Health. Minneapolis: Walden University.

 

Kimmel, M.S. (2002). Gender symmetry in domestic violence: A substantive and methodological research review. Violence Against Women, 8(11):1332-1363. https://doi.org/10.1.1.468.9330

 

Kolbe, V., & Büttner A. (2020). Domestic violence against men-prevalence and risk factors. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 117:534-541. https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2020.0534

 

Krug, E.G., Dahlberg, L.L., & Mercy, J.A. (2002). World Report on Violence and Health. Switzerland: World Health Organization.

 

Larsen, M.M. (2016). Health Inequities Related to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women: The Role of Social Policy in the United States, Germany, and Norway. New York City: Springer.

 

Mazza, M., Marano, G., Lai, C., Janiri, L., & Sani, G. (2020). Danger in danger: Interpersonal violence during COVID-19 quarantine. Psychiatry Research, 289:113046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113046

 

Mitra, M., Mouradian, V.E., & Foy, M.H. (2016). Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence against men with disabilities. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 50:311-317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.07.030

 

Nesset, M.B., Gudde, C.B, Mentzoni, G.E., & Palmstierna, T. (2021). Intimate partner violence during COVID-19 lockdown in Norway: The increase of police reports. BMC Public Health, 21:2292. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-12408-x

 

NOI Polls. (2020). Spousal Violence Poll Result. Available from: https://noi-polls.com/spousal-violence-poll-result [Last accessed on 2021 Jul 11].

 

Nwosu, A. (2021). We’ve Recorded 89 Cases of Men Beaten By their Wives”-Lagos. Available from: https://dailypost. ng/2021/05/05/weve-recorded-89-cases-of-men-beaten-by-their-wives-lagos-govt [Last accessed on 2021 May 03].

 

Office for National Statistics. (2019). Appendix Tables: Domestic Abuse Prevalence and Victim Characteristics (Table 1a). In: Cardiff Road: Statistics ONS. Available from: https://www. ons.gov.uk [Last accessed on 2021 Jul 11].

 

Office of National Statistics. (2018). Appendix Tables: Partner Abuse in Detail-(Tables 9 and 12). Newport: Statistics ONS. Available from: https://www.ons.gov.uk [Last accessed on 2021 Jul 11].

 

Peitzmeier, S.M., Fedina, L., Ashwell, L., Herrenkohl, T.I., & Tolman, R. (2021). Increases in intimate partner violence during COVID-19: Prevalence and correlates. Journal of Interperspective Violence. 37:NP20482-NP20512. https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605211052586

 

Saunders, D.G. (1988). Wife abuse, husband abuse, or mutual combat? A feminist perspective on the empirical findings. In: Yllö, K., & Bograd, M.L. (eds.). Feminist Perspectives. United States: Sage Publications.

 

Schwartz, M.D., & DeKeseredy, W.S. (1993). The return of the “battered husband syndrome” through the typification of women as violent. Crime, Law, and Social Change, 20:249-245.

 

Sharma, P., & Khokhar, A. (2021). Domestic violence and coping strategies among married adults during lockdown due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in India: A cross-sectional study. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness. https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2021.59

 

Steinmetz, S.K. (1977). The battered husband syndrome. Victimology, 2(3-4):499-509.

 

Stets, J.E., & Straus, M.A. (1990). Gender differences in reporting marital violence and its medical and psychological consequences. In: Straus, M.A., & Gelles, R.J. (eds.). Physical Violence in American Families. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, p.151-165.

 

Straus, M.A. (2009). Gender symmetry in partner violence: Evidence and implications for prevention and treatment. Whitaker, D.J., & Lutzker, J.R. (eds.). Preventing Partner Violence: Research and Evidence-Based Intervention Strategies. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

 

Straus, M.A. (2011). Gender symmetry and mutuality in perpetration of clinical-level partner violence: Empirical evidence and implications for prevention and treatment. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16:279-288.

 

Strauss, M.A. (2008). Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and Youth Services Review, 30(3):252-275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2007.10.004

 

Stults, C.B., Javdani, S., Greenbaum, C.A., & Halkitis, P.N. (2016). Intimate partner violence and sex among young men who have sex with men. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58:215-222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.10.008

 

Swan, S.C., Gambone, L.J., Caldwell, J.E., Sullivan, T.P., & Snow, D.L. (2008). A review of research on women’s use of violence with male intimate partners. Violence and Victims, 23(3):301-314. https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.23.3.301

 

Tjaden, P. (2000). Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence against Women. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

 

Tsui, V., Cheung, M., & Leung, P. (2010). Help‐seeking among male victims of partner abuse: Men’s hard times. American Journal of Community Psychology, 38(6):769-780. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20394

 

Umubyeyi, A., Mogren, I., Ntaganira, J., & Krantz, G. (2014). Women are considerably more exposed to intimate partner violence than men in Rwanda: Results from a population-based, cross-sectional study. BMC Women’s Health, 14:99. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6874-14-99

 

UNFPA., & IPPF. (2017). Global Sexual and Reproductive Health Service Package for Men and Adolescent Boys: Clinical SRH services and components. Available from: https:// www.unfpa.org/resources/global-sexual-and-reproductive-health-servicepackage-men-and-adolescent-boys-clinical-srh [Last accessed on 2021 Jul 11].

 

United Nations Nigeria. (2020). Gender-based Violence in Nigeria during the COVID-19 Crisis: The Shadow Pandemic. Available from: https://nigeria.un.org/sites/ default/files/202005/Gender%20Based%20Violence%20 in%20nigeria%20during%20COVID%2019%20crisis_ the%20shadow%20pandemicpdf

 

Warburton, E., & Raniolo, G. (2020). Domestic Abuse during COVID-19: What about the boys? Psychiatry Research, 291:113155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113155.

Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Share
Back to top
International Journal of Population Studies, Electronic ISSN: 2424-8606 Print ISSN: 2424-8150, Published by AccScience Publishing