AccScience Publishing / IJPS / Volume 10 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.36922/ijps.0871
Cite this article
53
Download
892
Views
Journal Browser
Volume | Year
Issue
Search
News and Announcements
View All
REVIEW

LGBTQI+ asylum seekers and refugees: Recognition and public policies for protection

Henrique Zanin1* Antonio Rodrigues de Freitas Junior1
Show Less
1 Department of Human Rights, University of Sao Paulo School of Law, Sao Paulo, Brazil
IJPS 2024, 10(2), 103–114; https://doi.org/10.36922/ijps.0871
Submitted: 27 April 2023 | Accepted: 10 October 2023 | Published: 8 November 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution -Noncommercial 4.0 International License (CC-by the license) ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ )
Abstract

The LGBTQI+ and refugee agendas are interconnected, and there are frequent instances where LGBTQI+ asylum seekers and refugees experience mistreatment and rights violations during the asylum process. Since the first LGBTQI+ refugee requests took place in the 1990s, the topic has not yet been satisfactorily debated. Although states have been creating norms and programs targeting this population, some of these initiatives do not seem to reach local realities, and persistent gaps hinder the ability of LGBTQI+ asylum seekers and refugees to fully enjoy their rights, especially when specific subgroups are isolated and analyzed. Shedding light on the migratory policies established in Europe and acknowledging that some specific migrant populations have received modest academic attention; thus far, this work seeks to investigate the main issues discussed thus far by the literature on the specific hardship, violence, and intersectional discrimination suffered by LGBTQI+ asylum seekers and refugees during the asylum application and procedure. It also aims to disseminate the role public policies play in protecting and encouraging social inclusion and rights, not only for this portion of the population as a unified group but also for this acronym that encompasses a relatively diverse population in need of innovative policies for comprehensive inclusion.

Keywords
LGBTQI+ asylum
Asylum seekers
Refugees
Public policies
Systematic literature review
Funding
None.
References

Alessi, E.J., Kahn, S., Greenfield, B., Woolner, L., & Manning, D. (2020). A qualitative exploration of the integration experiences of LGBTQ refugees who fled from the Middle East, North Africa, and central and South Asia to Austria and the Netherlands. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 17(1):13-26. https://doi.org/10.7282/T3NP2695

 

Bayefsky, A.F. (2016). The principle of equality or non-discrimination in international law. In: Farrior, S. (ed.). Equality and Non-discrimination under International Law. The Library of Essays on International Human Rights. London: Routledge, p.71-104. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13178-018-0364-7

 

Beger, N.J. (2000). Queer readings of Europe: Gender identity, sexual orientation and the (im)potency of rights politics at the European court of justice. Social and Legal Studies, 9(2):249-270. https://doi.org/10.1177/096466390000900204

 

Bell, M. (2003). The right to equality and non-discrimination. In: Hervey, TK., & Kenner, J. (eds.). Economic and Social Rights under the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights: A Legal Perspective. Oxford: Hart Publishing, p.91-110.

 

Bento, B. (2006). A Reinvenção do Corpo: Sexualidade e Gênero na Experiência Transexual. Rio de Janeiro: Garamond.

 

Bondarenko, A. (2014). Between a rock and a hard place: Why rational basis scrutiny for LGBT classifications is incompatible with opposition to LGBT affirmative action. Brooklyn Law Review, 79(4):1703-1743.

 

Borrillo, D. (2010). Homofobia: História e Crítica de um Preconceito. Belo Horizonte: Autêntica.

 

Bruce-Jones, E. (2015). Death zones, comfort zones: Queering the refugee question. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, 22(1):101-127. https://doi.org/10.1163/15718115-02201004

 

Bucci, M.P.D. (2013). Fundamentos Para uma Teoria Jurídica das Políticas Públicas. São Paulo: Saraiva.

 

Butler, J. (1993). Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of “Sex”. New York: Routledge.

 

Council of the European Union. (2011). Directive 2011/95/ EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on Standards for the Qualification of Third-country Nationals or Stateless Persons as Beneficiaries of International Protection, for a Uniform Status for Refugees or for Persons Eligible for Subsidiary Protection, and for the Content of the Protection Granted. Available from: https://www.eur-lex.europa.eu/lexuriserv/lexuriserv. do?uri=oj: l:2011:337:0009:0026:en: pdf [Last accessed on 2023 Jan 08].

 

Council of the European Union. (2013). Directive 2013/32/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on Common Procedures for Granting and Withdrawing International Protection (Recast). Available from: https:// www.bloomsburycollections.com/book/eu-immigration-and-asylum-law-a-commentary [Last accessed on 2023 Jan 08].

 

Donnelly, J. (2013). Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

 

European Asylum Support Office. (2022). Vulnerable Groups. Available from: https://www.easo.europa.eu/asylum-support-training/vulnerable-groups [Last accessed on 2023 Feb 18].

 

Ferreira, N. (2011). Questionnaire European Research Project Fleeing Homophobia, Seeking Safety in Europe-best Practices on the (Legal) Position of LGBT Asylum Seekers in the EU Member States. Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

 

Flage, A. (2019). Discrimination against gays and lesbians in hiring decisions: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Manpower, 41(6):671-691. https://doi.org/10.1108%2FIJM-08-2018-0239

 

Freitas Júnior, A.R., Boucinhas Filho, J.C., & Torres, D.B. (2017). Migração, Trabalho e Direitos Humanos. São Paulo: LTr.

 

Fullinwider, R. (2018). Affirmative Action. In: Zalta, E.N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press. Available from: https://plato. stanford.edu/archives/sum2018/entries/affirmative-action [Last accessed on 2023 Apr 30].

 

Gammeltoft-Hansen, T. (2011). Access to Asylum: International Refugee Law and the Globalisation of Migration Control. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

Gill, N., & Good, A. (2019). Asylum Determination in Europe: Ethnographic Perspectives. Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-94749-5

 

Goldberg, S.B. (1993). Give me liberty or give me death: Political asylum and the global persecution of lesbians and gay men. Cornell International Law Journal, 26(3):605-623.

 

Gomes, J.B.B., & Silva, F.D.L. (2003). As ações afirmativas e o processo de implementação da igualdade efetiva (Affirmative actions and the process of implementing effective equality). Cadernos do Centro de Estudos Judiciários, 24:86-153. [Article in Portuguese]

 

Han, E., & O’Mahoney, J. (2014). British colonialism and the criminalization of homosexuality. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 27(2):268-288. https://doi.org/10.1080/09557571.2013.867298

 

Holley, E.E. (2015). International anti-LGBT legislation: How nationalistic cultural warfare supports political motivations. Tulane Journal of Law and Sexuality, 24:179-202.

 

Ibrahim, A.M. (2015). LGBT rights in Africa and the discursive role of international human rights law. African Human Rights Law Journal, 15(2):263-281. https://doi.org/10.17159/1996-2096/2015/v15n2a2

 

International Labour Organization. (1958). Convention C111- discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention (No. 111). Available from: https://www.ilo.org/dyn/ normlex/en/f?p=normlexpub:12100:0:no: p12100_ilo_ code: c111 [Last accessed on 2023 Apr 02].

 

Jansen, S. (2013). Fleeing homophobia, asylum claims related to sexual orientation and gender identity in Europe. In: Spijkerboer, T. (ed.). Fleeing Homophobia: Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Asylum. London: Routledge, p.1-31. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203515723

 

Jovanović, M. (2020). LGBT persons in Serbia: Between formal acceptance and informal rejection. Tm-Technisches Messen, 44(1):139-157. [Article in Portuguese] https://doi.org/10.22190/teme180402013j

 

Jung, M. (2015). Logics of citizenship and violence of rights: The queer migrant body and the asylum system. Birkbeck Law Review, 3(2):305-335.

 

Lafuente, J.D. (2014). El derecho de asilo por motivos de orientación sexual e identidad de género (The right to asylum based on sexual orientation and gender identity). Revista de Derecho Político, 1(89):345-388. [Article in Portuguese] https://doi.org/10.5944/rdp.89.2014.12804

 

LaViolette, N. (2009). Independent human rights documentation and sexual minorities: An ongoing challenge for the Canadian refugee determination process. The International Journal of Human Rights, 13(2):437-476. https://doi.org/10.1080%2F13642980902758234

 

LaViolette, N. (2010). ‘UNHCR guidance note on refugee claims relating to sexual orientation and gender identity’: A critical commentary. International Journal of Refugee Law, 22(2):173-208. https://doi.org/10.1093%2Fijrl%2Feeq019

 

Lee, M.G. (2013). Between stonewall and AIDS: Initial efforts to establish gay and lesbian social services. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 40(3):163-186. https://doi.org/10.15453/0191-5096.3750

 

Lowndes, V., & Polat, R.K. (2020). How do local actors interpret, enact and contest policy? An analysis of local government responses to meeting the needs of Syrian refugees in Turkey. Local Government Studies, 48(3):546-569. https://doi.org/10.1080/03003930.2020.1825386

 

Luibhéid, E. (2008). Queer/migration: An unruly body of scholarship. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 14(2):169-190. https://doi.org/10.1215/10642684-2007-029

 

Makia, D.E. (2019). To be gay and African: Addressing the gross human rights violations of homosexuals in Cameroon and Uganda, and legislative remedies for their mistreatment. William and Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice, 25(3):681-708.

 

Martel, F. (2018). Global Gay: How Gay Culture is Changing the World. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

 

Millbank, J. (2004). Gender, sex and visibility in refugee claims on the basis of sexual orientation. Georgetown Immigration Law Journal, 18(1):71-110.

 

Millbank, J. (2009). From discretion to disbelief: Recent trends in refugee determinations on the basis of sexual orientation in Australia and the United Kingdom. International Journal of Human Rights, 13(2):391-414. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642980902758218

 

Murray, D.A.B. (2014). The (not so) straight story: Queering migration narratives of sexual orientation and gendered identity refugee claimants. Sexualities, 17(4):451-471. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1363460714524767

 

O’Nions, H. (2014). Asylum-a Right Denied: A Critical Analysis of European Asylum Policy. Surrey: Ashgate.

 

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. (2010). Recommendation 1915-Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity. Available from: https://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/xref/xref-xml2html-en. asp?fileid=17854&lang=en [Last accessed on 2023 Jan 19].

 

Piovesan, F. (2008). Ações afirmativas no Brasil: Desafios e perspectivas (Affirmative actions in Brazil: Challenges and perspectives). Revista Estudos Feministas, 16(3):887-896. [Article in Portuguese] https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-026X2008000300010

 

Piovesan, F. (2018). Direitos Humanos e o Direito Constitucional Internacional (Human Rights and International Constitutional Law). 18th ed. São Paulo: Saraiva. [Article in Portuguese]

 

Ramos, A.C. (2018). Curso de Direito Internacional Privado. São Paulo: Saraiva Educação.

 

Reed, A. (2013). A pro-trans argument for a transexclusive employment non-discrimination act. American Business Law Journal, 50(4):835-874. https://doi.org/10.1111/ablj.12022

 

Sabsay, L. (2012). The emergence of the other sexual citizen: Orientalism and the modernisation of sexuality. Citizenship Studies, 16(5):605-611. https://doi.org/10.1080/13621025.2012.698484

 

Shah, B. (2013). LGBT identity in immigration. Columbia Human Rights Law Review, 45:100-215.

 

Sherriff, N., Zeeman, L., McGlynn, N., Pinto, N., Hugendubel, K., Mirandola, M., et al. (2019). Co‐producing knowledge of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex (LGBTI) health‐care inequalities via rapid reviews of grey literature in 27 EU member states. Health Expectations, 22(4):688-700. https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fhex.12934

 

Spivak, G.C. (2010). Can the subaltern speak? In: Morris, R.C. (ed.). Reflexions on the History of an Idea: Can the Subaltern Speak? New York: Columbia University Press, p.36-114.

 

Sweetapple, C. (2018). The Queer Intersectional in Contemporary Germany: Essays on Racism, Capitalism and Sexual Politics. 1st ed. Gießen: Psychosozial-Verlag. https://doi.org/10.30820/9783837974447

 

Tabak, S., & Levitan, R. (2014). LGBTI migrants in immigration detention: A global perspective. Harvard Journal of Law and Gender, 37(1):1-45.

 

Tobler, C. (2014). Equality and non-discrimination under the ECHR and EU Law. A comparison focusing on discrimination against LGBTI persons. Zeitschrift für Ausländisches Öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, 74:521-561.

 

Torvik, Y.G. (2017). Safeguarding Borders, or Safeguarding Queers? Master’s Thesis. Paris: Sciences Po.

 

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2002a). Guidelines on International Protection No. 1: Gender-related Persecution within the Context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees (HCR/GIP/02/01). Available from: https://www.unhcr.org/publications/legal/3d58ddef4/ guidelines-international-protection-1-gender-related-persecution-context.html [Last accessed on 2023 Apr 19].

 

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2002b). Guidelines on International Protection No. 2: “Membership of a Particular Social Group” within the Context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees (HCR/GIP/02/02). Available from: https://www.unhcr.org/publications/ legal/3d58de2da/guidelines-international-protection-2- membership-particular-social-group.html [Last accessed on 2023 Apr 19].

 

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2008). UNHCR Guidance Note on Refugee Claims Relating to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity. Available from: https://www.unhcr.org/uk/lgbti-claims.html [Last accessed on 2023 Apr 19].

 

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2012). Guidelines on International Protection No. 9: Claims to Refugee Status based on Sexual Orientation and/or Gender Identity within the Context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. Available from: https://www.unhcr. org/509136ca9.pdf [Last accessed on 2023 Apr 20].

 

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2019). Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status and Guidelines on International Protection. Geneva: UNHCR.

 

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2020). Global Trends: Forced Displacement 2019. Copenhagen: UNHCR Global Data Service. Available from: https://www.unhcr. org/refugee-statistics [Last accessed on 2023 Apr 20].

 

Vasiljević, S. (2015). Equality, non-discrimination and fundamental rights: Old habits die hard! In: Vinković, M. (ed.). New Developments in the EU and National Labour Law. Osijek: Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek Faculty of Law, p.177-194.

 

Wagner, N. (2016). B is for bisexual: The forgotten letter in U.K. Sexual orientation asylum reform. Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems, 26(1):205-227.

 

Whittaker, D.J. (2006). Asylum Seekers and Refugees in the Contemporary World. London: Routledge.

 

Yilmaz, V., & Göçmen, İ. (2016). Denied citizens of Turkey: Experiences of discrimination among LGBT individuals in employment, housing and health care. Gender, Work and Organization, 23(5):470-488. https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12122

 

Zanin, H. (2019). Discussions on social rights: Access to work and public policies for sexual and gender minorities. Revista do Curso de Direito Unifor, 10(1):46-58. https://doi.org/10.24862/rcdu.v10i1.1057

 

Zaun, N. (2017). EU Asylum Policies: The Power of Strong Regulating States. Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007%2F978-3-319-39829-7

Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing interests.
Share
Back to top
International Journal of Population Studies, Electronic ISSN: 2424-8606 Print ISSN: 2424-8150, Published by AccScience Publishing