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Emodin Suppresses Helicobacter pylori- Induced Gastric Carcinogenesis in GES-1 Cells by Regulating the PI3K/AKT and Nrf2 Signaling Pathways

Palanimuthu Duraisami1 Rajasekar Muthusamy2*
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1 Department of Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Thirucharapalli, Tamil Nadu-620024, India
2 Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608002, Tamil Nadu, India
CP 2023, 5(3), 2582
Submitted: 5 May 2023 | Accepted: 30 June 2023 | Published: 16 July 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( )

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is recognized as a microbial carcinogen among gram-negative bacteria and is considered the most significant risk factor for the development of human gastric cancer. Consequently, inhibiting the growth of H. pylori has become a critical strategy for preventing gastric cancer. This study focuses on the inhibitory effects of emodin (EDN) against H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenic signaling in human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1). In vitro cytotoxicity assessments revealed that a concentration of 40 µM of EDN provided remarkable protection to gastric cells, resulting in 85% cell viability without inducing toxicity. Furthermore, EDN prevented the H. pylori-induced depletion of antioxidants, which was mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage, and nuclear fragmentation. Our findings indicate that EDN significantly suppressed the expression of phosphorylated forms of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, phosphorylated p38 kinases (p-p38), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 (p-ERK1), phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) in GES-1 cells infected with H. pylori. Additionally, EDN notably enhanced the expression of antioxidant proteins nuclear factor erythroid factor-2 (Nrf2) in H. pylori-infected cells. In summary, EDN shows promising potential in preventing H. pylori-associated infections and their associated resistance, making it a viable candidate for the prevention of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer.

Emodin; gastric cancer; H. Pylori; GES-1 cell line; Inflammation
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Conflict of interest
There is no competing interest.
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Cancer Plus, Electronic ISSN: 2661-3840 Print ISSN: 2661-3832, Published by AccScience Publishing