AccScience Publishing / JCAU / Volume 5 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.36922/jcau.1033
Cite this article
50
Download
1556
Views
Journal Browser
Volume | Year
Issue
Search
News and Announcements
View All
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

Study on the walkability of old city streets in Beijing from the perspective of application of Central Axis for World Heritage List

Xiaoyong Zhang1 Changming Yu1* Yue Gong1
Show Less
1 School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, China
Journal of Chinese Architecture and Urbanism 2023, 5(3), 1033 https://doi.org/10.36922/jcau.1033
Submitted: 1 June 2023 | Accepted: 28 July 2023 | Published: 21 August 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution -Noncommercial 4.0 International License (CC-by the license) ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ )
Abstract

The year 2023 is a key year for Beijing’s Central Axis to apply for World Heritage List. As the social space of urban culture, the streets are the communication space between modern-day residents and living heritage. In the blocks applying for World Heritage status, the walkability of the streets has an important impact on the presentation of the scene, cultural exchange, and tourist guidance. Based on the perspective of Central Axis application for World Heritage List, this study attempted to provide updated planning suggestions for the improvement of street walkability quality. Focusing on the human scale, first, 13 objective indicators and three subjective indicators of the streets in the buffer zone were evaluated by semantic segmentation, virtual audit, Likert scale, and other methods, as well as by acquiring the latest street view. Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to explore the main factors affecting the walkability of the streets. The results show that 13 objective indicators such as street interface, street facilities and street style in space show a trend of gradual decline from the central axis to both sides. Buildings on the north side of Chang’an Avenue in Beijing’s Old Town better preserve the architectural style of the traditional hutong. The factors that were strongly related to the sense of security were the proportion of fences and the width of the street. The strongest correlation factor concerning comfort is the street aspect ratio, whereas the most important factor related to aesthetic perception is the degree of preservation of traditional features. Finally, the paper puts forward some new strategies, such as clearly distinguishing street pedestrian and vehicular functions, controlling green visual ratio to adjust street visual aspect ratio, and protecting traditional street pattern.

Keywords
Central Axis
Buffer zone
Walkability
Street view
Index analysis
Funding
National Natural Science Foundation of China
References

Ashihara, Y. (2006). The Aesthetics of the Street. Peitong, Y., Trans. Tianjin: Baihua Literature and Art Publishing House.

 

Blečić, I., Cecchini, A., & Trunfio, G. A. (2018). Towards automatic assessment of perceived walkability. In: O Gervasi, B Murgante, S Misra, E Stankova, CM Torre, AMA Rocha, et al., (eds.). Computational Science and Its Applications-ICCSA 2018. Cham: Springer International Publishing, p.351-365. https://doi.org/10/gn8jcq

 

Carson, J. R., Conway, T. L., Perez, L. G., Frank, L. D., Saelens, B. E., Cain, K. L., et al. (2023). Neighborhood walkability, neighborhood social health, and self-selection among U.S. adults. Health Place, 82:103036. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2023.103036

 

Cerin, E., Macfarlane, D. J., Ko, H. H., & Chan, K. C. A. (2007). Measuring perceived neighbourhood walkability in Hong Kong. Cities, 24(3):209-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2006.12.002

 

Clifton, K. J., LiviSmith, A. D., & Rodriguez, D. (2007). The development and testing of anaudit for the pedestrian environment. Landscape and Urban Planning, 80(1-2):95-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2006.06.008

 

Cunningham, G. O., Michael, Y. L., Farquhar, S. A., & Lapidus, J. (2005). Developing a reliable senior walking environmental assessment tool. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 29(3):215-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2005.05.002

 

Dong, S., & Long, S. (2015). Research on the walkability measurement method and development strategy of residential area based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation: A case study of Chongqing typical residential area. Journal of Human Settlements in West China, 30(1):106-112.

 

Ewing, R., & Handy, S. (2009). Measuring the unmeasurable: Urban design qualities related to walkability. Journal of Urban Design, 14(1):65-84. https://doi.org/10.1080/13574800802451155

 

Fang, J., Liu, J., Wang, D., & Yu, C. (2018). Analysis of 6 foreign urban street planning and design guidelines--How to plan pedestrian-friendly urban street open space? Landscape Architecture, 25(11):33-39.

 

Fang, Z., He, L., & Zhang, D. (2021). Measurement of amenity and identification of influencing factors in Shanghai street space based on multi-source data analysis. New Building, 198(5):142-147.

 

Frank, L. D., Sallis, J. F., Saelens, B. E., Leary, L., Cain, K., Conway, T. L., et al. (2010). The development of a walkability index: Application to the neighborhood quality of life study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(13):924-933. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2009.058701

 

Gehl, J. (2011). Life between Buildings: Using Public Space. Washington, DC: Island Press. (Original work published 1987)

 

Hall, C. M., & Ram, Y. (2019). Measuring the relationship between tourism and walkability? Walk Score and English tourist attractions. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(2):223-240. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1404607

 

Han, J. (2005). Research on the Architecture of Beijing Pioneer Agricultural Temple. Tianjin: Tianjin University.

 

Harvey, C. W. (2014). Measuring Streetscape Design for Livability Using Spatial Data and Methods. Dissertations and Theses- Gradworks.

 

Jiang, Y., & Chen, Y. (2014). Interactive mechanism and collaborative prospect of city. Architecture and Transportation Planner, 10:117-121.

 

Jiang, Y., Gu, P., Chen, Y., & Mao, Q. (2016). Study on continuity of urban street interface based on GIS: A case study of Jinan city. Urban Transportation, 14(4):1-7.

 

Jin, G. (1991). Analysis of urban street wall. Urban Planning, 1991(05):47-51+64.

 

Liu, B. (2020). Research on Street Walkability of Historical and Cultural Districts in Beijing Based on Multi-source Data. Beijing: Beijing University of Technology.

 

Liu, L., & Zheng, X. (2023). Street Walkability Measurement Based on Multi-source Big Data and Semantic Segmentation Model. Chinese Society of Landscape Architecture. In: Proceedings of the 2022 Annual Conference of the Chinese Society of Landscape Architecture. Beijing: China Building Industry Press, p. 219-225.

 

Liu, S., & Pan, H. (2018). Study on walkability evaluation and design strategy of Shanghai rail transit station area. Urban Architecture, 30:14-17.

 

Maghelal, P. K., & Capp, C. J. (2011). Walkability: A review of existing pedestrian indices. Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, 23(2):5-19.

 

Manaugh, K., & El-Geneidy, A. (2011). Validating walkability indices: How do different households respond to the walkability of their neighborhood? Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 16(4):309-315.

 

Purciel, M., Neckerman, K. M., Lovasi, G. S., Quinn, J. W., Weiss, C., Bader, M. D. M., et al. (2009). Creating and validating GIS measures of urban design for health research. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29(4):457-466. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.03.004

 

 

Shartova, N. V., Mironova, E. E., & Grischenko, M. Y. (2023). Spatial disparities of street walkability in Moscow in the context of healthy urban environment. Cities, 141:104469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2023.104469

 

Sitte. (1965), City Planning Accoring Artistic Principles. New York: Random House.

 

Song, W. (2021). Research on Walkability Environment of Urban Blocks Based on Multi-Source Data Analysis. Beijing: Beijing Forestry University.

 

Song, W. (2022). We will do a good job in applying for the designation of the Beijing Central Axis. Beijing Observation, 378(4):42.

 

Su, S. (2017). Study on the Influence of Walking Environment on Travel Safety and Travel Behavior. China: Chang ‘an University.

 

Wang, T., Gao, S., Lu, X., & Li, D. (2021). Quantitative Evaluation Method of Street Spatial Quality from the Perspective of Place: A Case Study of Capital Core District. Chinese Society of Urban Planning, Chengdu People’s Government. Spatial Governance for High-quality Development. In: Proceedings of the 2020 China Urban Planning Annual Conference (05 Application of New Technologies in Urban Planning). Beijing: China Building Industry Press, p. 58-69.

 

Xie, Z. (2017). Study on Evaluation and Optimization of Pedestrian Environment in Commercial and Cultural Pedestrian Block of Beijing Road. China: South China University of Technology.

 

Xu, L., Jiang, W., & Chen, Z. (2018). A study on the security of public space: a case study of Shanghai city streetscape perception. Landscape Architecture, 25(7):23-29.

 

Yu, C., & Wu, P. (2018). A review on evaluation methods of urban green space walkability. Chinese Landscape Architecture, 34(4):18-23.

 

Yu, Y. (2013). Study on the Relationship between Street Contour Shape and Wind Environment. China: Nanjing University.

 

Zhang, J., & Huo, X. (2002). Human scale in urban design of Beijing ancient city. World Architecture, 2:66-71.

Conflict of interest
The authors declare that this paper has no conflict of interest with other institutions or organizations.
Share
Back to top
Journal of Chinese Architecture and Urbanism, Electronic ISSN: 2717-5626 Published by AccScience Publishing