AccScience Publishing / ITPS / Volume 6 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.36922/itps.0425
Cite this article
97
Download
1686
Views
Journal Browser
Volume | Year
Issue
Search
News and Announcements
View All
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

Evaluation of the microbial quality of commercial liquid herbal preparations on the Ghanaian market

Christina Osei-Asare1 Frederick William Akuffo Owusu2* John Antwi Apenteng3 Philomena Entsie4 Ofosua Adi-Dako5 Doris Kumadoh6 Amanda Voado1 Esther Aloni1 Yaa Asantewaa Osei1
Show Less
1 Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Central University, Miotso, Ghana
2 Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
3 Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmacy, Central University, Miotso, Ghana
4 Department of Herbal Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
5 Department of Pharmaceutics and Microbiology, School of Pharmacy, University of Ghana
6 Centre for Plant Medicine Research, Akuapem-Mampong, Ghana
INNOSC Theranostics and Pharmacological Sciences 2023, 6(2), 0425 https://doi.org/10.36922/itps.0425
Submitted: 12 April 2023 | Accepted: 17 July 2023 | Published: 9 August 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution -Noncommercial 4.0 International License (CC-by the license) ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ )
Abstract

Conventionally, the microorganisms in liquid herbal mixtures are curtailed due to the fresh preparation before the administration to patients. Prolonged storage of liquid herbal preparations (due to commercialization) coupled with primeval routine production processes may increase the potential of microbial contamination in liquid herbal preparations. This study aims to analyze the microbial quality of 15 selected commercial liquid herbal preparations on the Ghanaian market. The samples were obtained from accredited pharmacies and herbal outlets in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, specifically Central Accra, between November 2019 and January 2020. The selected samples were coded HM1 to HM15. The effectiveness of the primary package of all samples was determined using the seal integrity test. The presence of microorganisms in the sampled brands was determined using nutrient agar. Isolated microorganisms from the sampled herbal mixtures were then identified using various selective media. All 15 samples (100%) passed the seal integrity test. Ten (67%) out of the 15 samples were contaminated with various microorganisms, whereas the remaining 5 samples (33%) were devoid of microorganisms. Eight (53%) out of the 15 samples were contaminated with fungi, with 3 (20%) being above the pharmacopeial limit. Six (40%) out of the 15 samples showed the presence of Escherichia coli. Out of the 15 sampled products, only HM11 contained Staphylococcus aureus. Similarly, only one sampled product (HM15) contained Salmonella typhi. None of the sampled products was contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ultimately, this study revealed that commercialized liquid herbal preparations in Ghana are likely to be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. Good manufacturing practices must therefore be strictly adhered to bring out the best in local herbal manufacturing industries.

Keywords
Herbal medicines
Microbial quality
Good manufacturing practices
Funding
None.
References
  1. World Health Organization, 2019, WHO Global Report on Traditional and Complementary Medicine 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization.

 

  1. Archibong EJ, Igboeli CN, Okoro NC, et al., 2017, Microbiological assessment of some liquid herbal medications sold in Awka Metropolis, Anambra state. Bioeng Biosci, 5: 37–46. https://doi.org/10.13189/bb.2017.050301

 

  1. Indrayanto G, 2018, Recent development of quality control methods for herbal derived drug preparations. Nat Prod Commun, 13: 1599–1606. https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578X1801301208

 

  1. Kosalec I, Cvek J, Tomić S, 2009, Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol, 60: 485–501. https://doi.org/10.2478/10004-1254-60-2009-2005

 

  1. Abba D, Inabo HI, Yakubu SE, et al., 2009, Contamination of herbal medicinal products marketed in Kaduna metropolis with selected pathogenic bacteria. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med, 6: 70–77. https://doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v6i1.57076

 

  1. Enayatifard R, Asgarirad H, Kazemi-Sani B, 2010, Microbial quality of some herbal solid dosage forms. Afr J Biotechnol, 9: 1701–1705. https://doi.org/10.5897/ajb10.1673

 

  1. Agyeman-Duah E, Quaidoo E, Mill-Robertson FC, 2017, Microbial quality of herbal powders in Ghana. Edorium J Microbiol, 3: 10–17. https://doi.org/10.5348/M08-2017-7-OA-2

 

  1. Darko IN, 2009, Ghanaian Indigenous Health Practices: The Use of Herbs, Thesis Submission to the Graduate Department of Sociology and Equity Studies in Education. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto, p2–46.

 

  1. Ismail SF, Azmi IM, Daud M, et al., 2020, Regulatory control of herbal and traditional medicines in Malaysia: Issues and concerns. Int J Bus Soc, 21: 192–204.

 

  1. Frank AM, Ari H, Jussi K, et al., 2019, Post-market safety and efficacy surveillance of herbal medicinal products from users perspective: A qualitative semi-structured interview study in Kumasi, Ghana. Int J Pharm Pharmacol, 3: 136. https://doi.org/10.31531/2581-3080.1000136

 

  1. Brown H, Mahler HC, Mellman J, et al., 2017, Container closure integrity testing-practical aspects and approaches in the pharmaceutical industry. PDA J Pharm Sci Technol, 71: 147–162. https://doi.org/10.5731/pdajpst.2016.006999

 

  1. Burrell LS, Carver MW, DeMuth GE, et al., 2000, Development of a dye ingress method to assess container-closure integrity: Correlation to microbial ingress. PDA J Pharm Sci Technol, 54: 449–455.

 

  1. USP 39, <1207> Package Integrity Evaluation-sterile Products. USP 39-NF34, Supplement 1. Rockville, MD: US Pharmacopeial Convention.

 

  1. World Health Organization. The International Pharmacopoeia. 9th ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2019.

 

  1. British Pharmacopoeia, 2018, British Pharmacopoeia Commission. London, UK: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

 

  1. Esimone CO, Chah KF, Ikejide SC, 2002, Microbiological quality of herbal preparations marketed in South East Nigeria. J Nat Remedies, 2: 42–48. https://doi.org/10.18311/jnr/2002/343

 

  1. Okunlola A, Adewoyin BA, Odeku AO, 2007, Evaluation of pharmaceutical and microbial qualities of some herbal medicinal products in South Western Nigeria. Trop J Pharm Res, 6: 661–670. https://doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v6i1.14644

 

  1. Feng P, Weagant SD, Grant MA, et al., 2002, Bacteriological Analytical Manual Chapter 4: Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria. Silver Spring, MD, USA: Food and Drug Administration.

 

  1. USP 39, <62> Microbial Examination of Nonsterile Products; Tests for Specified Micororganisms. USP 39-NF34, Supplement 1. Rockville, MD: US Pharmacopeial Convention.

 

  1. World Health Organization, 2007, WHO Guidelines for Assessing Quality of Herbal Medicines with Reference to Contaminants and Residues. Geneva: World Health Organization.

 

  1. European Pharmacopoeia, 2007, Microbiological Quality of Pharmaceutical Preparations. Ch. 5.1.4., 6th ed. Strasbourg: EDQM. p4451.

 

  1. Boateng DO, 2007, The Quality Assessment of Some Herbal Preparations Produced in Ghana (Doctoral Dissertation), KNUST.

 

  1. De Freitas MG, Bauab TM, 2012, Microbial quality of medicinal plant materials. In: Latest Research into Quality Control. London, UK: IntechOpen, p67–81. https://doi.org/10.5772/51072

 

  1. Brown GD, Denning DW, Gow NA, et al., 2012, Hidden killers: Human fungal infections. Sci Transl Med, 4: 165rv13. https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3004404
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
Share
Back to top
INNOSC Theranostics and Pharmacological Sciences, Electronic ISSN: 2705-0823 Published by AccScience Publishing