AccScience Publishing / ITPS / Volume 6 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.36922/itps.0300
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

Antimalarial potential of five Nigerian medicinal plants: Repository versus curative activities

Funmilayo I. D. Afolayan1* Olayemi Adegbolagun2 Beatrice Irungu3 Jennifer Orwa3 Chiaka Anumudu1
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1 Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
2 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
3 Centre for Traditional Medicine and Drug Research Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
INNOSC Theranostics and Pharmacological Sciences 2023, 6(2), 0300 https://doi.org/10.36922/itps.0300
Submitted: 28 February 2023 | Accepted: 30 June 2023 | Published: 26 July 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). Licensee AccScience Publishing, Singapore. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution -Noncommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0) ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ )
Abstract

The conventional management of malaria in most endemic areas is based on phytomedicine. It is commonly believed that prevention is better than cure when it comes to disease management. Therefore, medicinal plants commonly used for treatment in herbal medicine are also used for prevention purposes. Hence, it is important to investigate the efficacy of medicinal plants in relation to the timing of their use. To document the medicinal plants used for treating malaria, a structured questionnaire-based ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria. The survey revealed the use of 31 plant species from 24 families, with origin in Omu-Aran, in herbal antimalarial recipes. Some of the identified plants were subjected to in vivo antimalarial bioassays. The aqueous and dichloromethane: Methanol (1:1) extracts of the leaves and stem bark of Morinda lucida and Nauclea latifolia, as well as the leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia, and Lawsonia inermis were tested at doses of 100, 250 and 400 mg/kg against Plasmodium berghei Anka. The repository and curative tests were conducted to assess the residual and curative abilities of the extracts, respectively, with chloroquine as a reference drug. The tested extracts demonstrated better antiplasmodial activities in the repository tests, particularly the aqueous extracts. Only the organic extract of T. diversifolia at 100 mg/kg exhibited a high antiplasmodial activity with a percentage chemosuppression (PCS) value of 66.13%, while other extracts showed moderate (PCS: 30 – 60%) to no activity (PCS: <0%) in curative tests. In repository tests, only N. latifolia showed high activity with percentage chemoprophylaxis (PCP) values ranging from 61.51% to 81.69%, while other extracts generally showed moderate activities. Chloroquine showed strong chemosuppression (92.74 ≤ PCS ≤ 98.77) in curative tests but weak chemoprophylaxis (PCP <30%). The efficacy tests showed that most of the investigated medicinal plants were more effective for prevention rather than for curative purposes.

Keywords
Medicinal plants
Antiplasmodial
Curative test
Repository test
Chloroquine
Funding
None.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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INNOSC Theranostics and Pharmacological Sciences, Electronic ISSN: 2705-0823 Print ISSN: TBA, Published by AccScience Publishing