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REVIEW

Transglutaminase 2: A keystone in the molecular puzzle of cancer

Tasbir Amin1 Kazi Rahman2 Md Fakruddin1 Islam S M Bakhtiar UL1*
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1 Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, School of Health and Life Sciences, North South University, Bashundhara, Dhaka, Bangladesh
2 HIV Dynamics and Replication Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, United States of America
CP 2023, 5(2), 2495
Submitted: 28 February 2023 | Accepted: 4 May 2023 | Published: 25 May 2023
© 2023 by the Author(s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ )
Abstract

Transglutaminase-2 (TG2), an enzyme also referred to as tissue transglutaminase, is ubiquitously present in a wide range of tissues, cell types, and subcellular compartments. Extensive research has demonstrated its involvement in both physiological cellular processes and pathological conditions. Studies investigating the diverse range of actions and multitude of targets associated with TG2 have significantly contributed to the understanding of its role in various types of cancer. This association is established through its interaction with pathways implicated in the initiation, progression, and ultimate spread of tumors. Furthermore, recent findings indicate that TG2 has a role in modifying the biomechanical milieu and signaling inside the tumor microenvironment, alongside mediating cancer cell behavior and intracellular signaling. In this review, we aim to elucidate the existing understanding of TG2’s involvement in cancer, with a specific emphasis on its functions in translating external signals into the initiation of oncogenic processes. Enhanced comprehension of these pathways may potentially pave the way for novel treatment approaches aimed at modulating this versatile protein.

Keywords
Tissue transglutaminase
Transglutaminase 2
Cancer
Tumor microenvironment
Tumor progression
Funding
None.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Cancer Plus, Electronic ISSN: 2661-3840 Print ISSN: 2661-3832, Published by AccScience Publishing