AccScience Publishing / ITPS / Volume 7 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.36922/itps.1472

Addressing cortex dysregulation in youth through brain health check coaching and prophylactic brain development

Kenneth Blum1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10* Eric R. Braverman2 Mark S. Gold11 Catherine A. Dennen12 David Baron1 Panayotis K. Thanos13 Colin Hanna13 Igor Elman14 Marjore C. Gondre-Lewis15 J. Wesson Ashford16 Andrew Newberg17 Margaret A. Mandigan2 Nicole Jafari5,18 Foojan Zeine18,19 Keerthy Sunder20,21 John Giordano10 Debmayla Barh6 Ashim Gupta22 Paul Cartney23 Abdalla Bowirrat4 Rajendra D. Badgaiyan24*
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1 Division of Addiction Research and Education, Center for Sports, Exercise and Global Mental Health, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, California, United States of America
2 The Kenneth Blum Behavioral and Neurogenetic Institute LLC, Austin, Texas, United States of America
3 Faculty of Education and Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University Budapest, Budapest, Hungary
4 Department of Molecular Biology and Adelson School of Medicine, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel
5 Division of Personalized Medicine, Cross-Cultural Research and Educational Institute, San Clemente, California, United States of America
6 Centre for Genomics and Applied Gene Technology, Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, India
7 Division of Personalized Recovery Science, Transplicegen Therapeutics, Llc., Austin, Tx., United of States
8 Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America
9 Department of Psychiatry, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, United States of America
10 Division of Personalized Medicine, Ketamine Clinic of South Florida, Pompano Beach, Florida, United States of America
11 Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
12 Department of Family Medicine, Jefferson Health Northeast, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
13 Department of Psychology and Behavioral Neuropharmacology and Neuroimaging Laboratory on Addictions, Research Institute on Addictions, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, United States of America
14 Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
15 Department of Anatomy, Howard University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C., United States of America
16 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States of America
17 Department of Integrative Medicine and Nutritional Sciences, Thomas Jefferson University and Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
18 Department of Human Development, California State University at Long Beach, Long Beach, California, United States of America
19 Awareness Integration Institute, San Clemente, California, United States of America
20 Department of Health Science, California State University at Long Beach, Long Beach, California, United States of America
21 Department of Psychiatry, University California, UC Riverside School of Medicine, Riverside, California, United States of America
22 Future Biologics, Lawrenceville, Georgia, United States of America
23 Division of Pediatric Neurology, University of Missouri Health Care-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri, United States of America
24 Department of Psychiatry, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York City, New York, United States of America
INNOSC Theranostics and Pharmacological Sciences 2024, 7(2), 1472
Submitted: 8 August 2023 | Accepted: 21 February 2024 | Published: 30 April 2024
© 2024 by the Author (s). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution -Noncommercial 4.0 International License (CC-by the license) ( )

The Carter Center has estimated that the addiction crisis in the United States (US), if continues to worsen at the same rate, may cost the country approximately 16 trillion dollars by 2030. In recent years, the well-being of youth has been compromised by not only the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic but also the alarming global opioid crisis, particularly in the US. Each year, deadly opioid drugs claim hundreds of thousands of lives, contributing to an ever-rising death toll. In addition, maternal usage of opioids and other drugs during pregnancy could compromise the neurodevelopment of children. A high rate of DNA polymorphic antecedents compounds the occurrence of epigenetic insults involving methylation of specific essential genes related to normal brain function. These genetic antecedent insults affect healthy DNA and mRNA transcription, leading to a loss of proteins required for normal brain development and function in youth. Myelination in the frontal cortex, a process known to extend until the late 20s, delays the development of proficient executive function and decision-making abilities. Understanding this delay in brain development, along with the presence of potential high-risk antecedent polymorphic variants or alleles and generational epigenetics, provides a clear rationale for embracing the Brain Research Commission’s suggestion to mimic fitness programs with an adaptable brain health check (BHC). Implementing the BHC within the educational systems in the US and other countries could serve as an effective initiative for proactive therapies aimed at reducing juvenile mental health problems and eventually criminal activities, addiction, and other behaviors associated with reward deficiency syndrome.

Brain health check
Dopaminergic dysregulation
Executive function
Reward deficiency syndrome
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Conflict of interest
Kenneth Blum is the holder of both USA and foreign patents related to kb220 and gars. Other authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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INNOSC Theranostics and Pharmacological Sciences, Electronic ISSN: 2705-0823 Published by AccScience Publishing